Scuderia Ferrari

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Scuderia Ferrari

Scuderia Ferrari S.p.A. (Italian: [skudeˈriːa ferˈraːri]) is the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer Ferrari and the racing team that competes in Formula One racing. The team is also nicknamed “The Prancing Horse”, with reference to their logo. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, having competed in every world championship since the 1950 Formula One season.[15] The team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. Among its important achievements outside Formula One are winning the World Sportscar Championship, 24 Hours of Le Mans, 24 Hours of Spa, 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, Bathurst 12 Hour, races for Grand tourer cars and racing on road courses of the Targa Florio, the Mille Miglia and the Carrera Panamericana.

As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors’ Championships, the last of which was won in 2008. Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers’ Championships for the team.[16] Since Räikkönen’s title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers’ title with Felipe Massa and the 2010 and 2012 drivers’ titles with Fernando Alonso.

Michael Schumacher is the team’s most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five drivers’ titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, and the team won consecutive constructors’ title from 1999 until the end of 2004; this was the team’s most successful period.

Currently, Sebastian Vettel[17] and Charles Leclerc are the two main race drivers.

The team is also known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the team’s home race.

History[edit]

Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 Scuderia Ferrari

The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the racing team of Alfa Romeo, building and racing Alfa Romeo cars. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to re-enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, which absorbed what had been Scuderia Ferrari.[18] Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, for a period of four years.

In 1939, Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815 (eight cylinders, 1.5 L displacement).[19] The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars. World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work.

After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, which would design and build its own cars.

Headquarters[edit]

The team was initially based in Modena from its pre-war founding until 1943, when Enzo Ferrari moved the team to a new factory in Maranello in 1943,[20] and both Scuderia Ferrari and Ferrari’s roadcar factory remain at Maranello to this day. The team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.

Identity[edit]

The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari. Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses[21] and is also commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams.

The prancing horse was the symbol on Italian World War I ace Francesco Baracca‘s fighter plane, and became the logo of Ferrari after the fallen ace’s parents, close acquaintances of Enzo Ferrari, suggested that Ferrari use the symbol as the logo of the Scuderia, telling him it would ‘bring him good luck’.[22]

Grand Prix racing and Formula One[edit]

1940s[edit]

In May 1947, Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder, 1.5 L Tipo 125, the first racing car to bear the Ferrari name.[23]

A Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grands Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established.

1950s[edit]

In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and Scuderia Ferrari entered in this first season. It is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day.

In fact the Ferrari team missed the first race of the championship, the 1950 British Grand Prix, due to a dispute about the ‘start money’ paid to entrants,[24] and the team debuted in the 1950 Monaco Grand Prix with the 125 F1, sporting a supercharged version of the 125 V12, and three experienced and successful drivers, Alberto Ascari, Raymond Sommer and Gigi Villoresi.[25] The company later switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275, 340, and 375 F1 cars. The Alfa Romeo team dominated the 1950 Formula One season, winning all eleven events it entered (six World Championship events and five non-championship races), but Ferrari broke their streak in 1951 when rotund driver José Froilán González took first place at the 1951 British Grand Prix.

After the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations[citation needed] due to the lack of suitable F1 cars. Ferrari entered the 2.0 L 4-cyl Ferrari Tipo 500, which went on to win almost every race in which it competed in the 1952 Formula One season with drivers Ascari, Giuseppe Farina, and Piero Taruffi; Ascari took the World Championship after winning six consecutive races. In the 1953 Formula One season, Ascari won only five races but another world title; at the end of that season, Juan Manuel Fangio beat the Ferraris in a Maserati for the first time.

The 1954 Formula One season brought new rules for 2.5 L engines; Ferrari’s new car, designated the Ferrari Tipo 625, could barely compete against Fangio with the Maserati and then the Mercedes-Benz W196 which appeared in July. Ferrari had only two wins, González at the 1954 British Grand Prix and Mike Hawthorn at the 1954 Spanish Grand Prix. In the 1955 Formula One season Ferrari did no better, winning only the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix with driver Maurice Trintignant. Late in the tragic 1955 season the Ferrari team purchased the Lancia team’s D50 chassis after they had retired following Ascari’s death; Fangio, Peter Collins, and Eugenio Castellotti raced the D50s successfully in the 1956 Formula One season: Collins two races, Fangio won three races and the championship.

In the 1957 Formula One season Fangio returned to Maserati. Ferrari, still using its ageing Lancias, failed to win a race. Drivers Luigi Musso and the Marquis Alfonso de Portago joined Castellotti; Castellotti died while testing and Portago crashed into a crowd at the Mille Miglia, killing twelve and causing Ferrari to be charged with manslaughter.

In the 1958 Formula One season, a Constructors’ Championship was introduced, and won by Vanwall. Carlo Chiti designed an entirely new car for Ferrari: the Ferrari 246 F1, with a V6 engine named after Enzo Ferrari’s recently deceased son. The team retained drivers Collins, Hawthorn, and Musso, but Musso died at the 1958 French Grand Prix and Collins died at the 1958 German Grand Prix; Hawthorn won the World Championship and announced his retirement, and died months later in a road accident.

Ferrari hired five new drivers, Tony Brooks, Jean Behra, Phil Hill, Dan Gurney, and occasionally Cliff Allison, for the 1959 Formula One season. The team did not get along well; Behra was fired after punching team manager Romolo Tavoni. Brooks was competitive until the end of the season, but in the end he narrowly lost the championship to Jack Brabham with the rear-engined Cooper.

1960s[edit]

The 1960 Formula One season proved little better than 1959. Ferrari kept drivers Hill, Allison and Wolfgang von Trips and added Willy Mairesse to drive the dated front-engined 246s and Richie Ginther, who drove Ferrari’s first rear-engined car. Allison was severely injured in testing and Hill gave the team its lone win by heading a hollow podium sweep at Monza after top British teams, with the championship already decided, boycotted Italian organizers’ decision to contest the race on a high-speed circuit which combined Monza’s high-banked oval with the normal road course.

In the 1961 Formula One season, with new rules for 1500 cc, the team kept Hill, von Trips and Ginther, and débuted another Chiti-designed car, the Ferrari 156 based on the Formula 2 car of 1960, which was dominant throughout the season. Ferrari drivers Hill and Von Trips competed for the championship. Giancarlo Baghetti joined in midseason and became the first driver to win on his debut race (the 1961 French Grand Prix). However, at the end of the season, von Trips crashed at the 1961 Italian Grand Prix and was killed, together with over a dozen spectators. Hill won the championship.

At the end of the 1961 season, in what is called “the walk-out”, car designer Carlo Chiti and team manager Romolo Tavoni left to set up their own team, ATS. Ferrari promoted Mauro Forghieri to racing director and Eugenio Dragoni to team manager.

Phil Hill driving for Ferrari at the 1962 German Grand Prix

Lorenzo Bandini driving for Ferrari at the 1966 German Grand Prix

For the 1962 Formula One season, Hill and Baghetti stayed on with rookies Ricardo Rodríguez and Lorenzo Bandini. Richie Ginther had left for BRM, leaving a big gap in the development of new models. The somewhat volatile Willy Mairesse took his place.[26] The team used the 1961 cars for a second year while Forghieri worked on a new design; the team won no race. After a prolonged metal workers’ strike in Italy Ferrari missed two races. This, combined with the betrayal of the 1961 walk-out and various troubles arising from Enzo’s refusal to accompany the team to the races (having his wife stand in for him instead) led to Enzo withdrawing from the last two races of the year. The drivers were free to drive for anyone, as long as it did not contradict the existing sponsor contracts with Dunlop, Shell, Marchal, and Ferodo.[26]

There had been talk of a Gilera-Ferrari in late 1962, with technical drawings released but no car ever seen, using a transversely mounted eight-cylinder engine based on two Gilera four-cylinder motorcycle blocks combined.[26] This came to naught, however, and Ferrari ran smaller lighter 156 cars for the 1963 Formula One season. This time the team depended on drivers Bandini, John Surtees, Willy Mairesse and Ludovico Scarfiotti. Surtees won the 1963 German Grand Prix, at which Mairesse crashed heavily, rendering him unable to drive again.

The new 158 model was at last finished in late 1963 and developed into raceworthiness for the 1964 Formula One season, featuring an eight-cylinder engine designed by Angelo Bellei. Surtees and Bandini were joined by young Mexican Pedro Rodríguez, brother of Ricardo (who had been killed at the end of 1962), to drive the new cars. Surtees won two races and Bandini one; the Ferrari was slower than Jim Clark‘s Lotus but its vastly superior reliability gave Surtees the championship and Bandini fourth place. In the last two races in North America, the Ferrari’s were entered by private team NART and painted in the US colour-scheme of blue and white, as Enzo was protesting against the Italian sporting authority.

The 1965 Formula One season was the last year of the 1.5 L formula, so Ferrari opted to use the same V8 engine another year together with a new flat-12 which had debuted at the end of 1964; they won no races as Clark dominated in his now more reliable Lotus. Surtees and Bandini stayed on as drivers, with odd races for Rodríguez, Vaccarella and Bob Bondurant.

For the 1966 Formula One season with new rules, the Ferrari 312 of Surtees consisted of a 3.0 L version of the 3.3 L V12 which they had previously used in Ferrari P sports car racers, mounted in the back of a rather heavy F1 chassis. Bandini drove a Tasman Series 2.4 L V6 car early in the season. Surtees won one race, the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix, but departed after a row with manager Eugenio Dragoni; he was replaced by Mike Parkes. Scarfiotti also won a race, the 1966 Italian Grand Prix at Monza, with an improved 36-valve engine.

In the 1967 Formula One season, the team fired Dragoni and replaced him with Franco Lini; Chris Amon partnered Bandini to drive a somewhat improved version of the 1966 car. At the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix Bandini crashed and suffered heavy injuries when he was trapped under his burning car; several days later he succumbed to his injuries. Ferrari kept Mike Parkes and Scarfiotti, but Parkes suffered career-ending injuries weeks later at the 1967 Belgian Grand Prix and Scarfiotti temporarily retired from racing after witnessing his crash.

The 1968 Formula One season was better; Jacky Ickx drove with one win in France and several good positions, which gave him a chance at the World Championship until a practise crash in Canada, and Amon led several races but won none. At the end of the season, manager Franco Lini quit and Ickx went to the Brabham team. During the summer of 1968, Ferrari worked out a deal to sell his road car business to Fiat for $11 million; the transaction took place in early 1969, leaving 50% of the business still under the control of Ferrari himself.

During the 1969 Formula One season, Enzo Ferrari set about wisely spending his new-found wealth to revive his struggling team; though Ferrari did compete in Formula One in 1969, it was something of a throwaway season while the team was restructured. Amon continued to drive an older model and Pedro Rodríguez replaced Ickx; at the end of the year Amon left the team.

1970s[edit]

Niki Lauda driving for Ferrari at the 1976 German Grand Prix

In 1970, a new car and engine was produced for that season, the 312B. It had an all-new flat-12 engine, which was to be the engine used by the team for the next 10 seasons. Jacky Ickx rejoined the team and won the Austrian Grand Prix, the Canadian Grand Prix and the Mexican Grand Prix to become second in the Drivers’ Championship. Clay Regazzoni made his debut that season and won the Italian Grand Prix, finishing third in the standings. Ferrari driver Pedro Rodríguez was killed in an Interserie sports car race at Norisring in Nuremberg, Germany, on 11 July 1971, at the wheel of a Ferrari 512M.

After three poor years, including a disastrous 1973 season which saw Ferrari failing to attend two races – the Dutch and German Grands Prix – for the first time since the team had started racing in Formula One, Ferrari signed Niki Lauda in 1974, and made the momentous decision to pull out of sportscar racing to concentrate upon F1. The same year Luca di Montezemolo was appointed Team Principal. Ferrari won the Spanish Grand Prix, the Dutch Grand Prix and the German Grand Prix, but Regazzoni lost the World Championship to Emerson Fittipaldi at the final race of the season, the United States Grand Prix.

The new Ferrari 312T, developed fully with Lauda and Regazzoni and designed by Mauro Forghieri, was introduced in 1975, and brought the team back to winning ways, Lauda won five races and took the drivers’ crown, and Ferrari won the Constructors’ Championship.

In 1976 Lauda was comfortably leading the championship when he crashed at the German Grand Prix, seriously injuring himself. Carlos Reutemann was hired as a replacement, and Ferrari fielded three cars in the 1976 Italian Grand Prix when Lauda returned unexpectedly soon (only six weeks after his accident). Lauda scored points twice in the races following his severe crash, but voluntarily withdrew from the season-ending Grand Prix at Fuji after two laps because of heavy rain, and James Hunt won the drivers’ title by a single point, but Ferrari won the constructors’ title for the second year in a row.

In 1977 Lauda, having come back from his near fatal crash the previous year, took the title again for Ferrari (and the team won the Constructors’ Championship), overcoming his more fancied, and favoured, teammate Reutemann. His relations with the team, especially Forghieri, continued to deteriorate, and he decided finally to leave for Brabham at the end of the season.

In 1978, Ferrari raced with Reutemann and Gilles Villeneuve, and while they managed to produce a solid car, winning five races, it was outclassed by the ground effect Lotus 79.

Jody Scheckter replacing the Lotus bound Argentinian in 1979, took the title, supported by Gilles Villeneuve (who dutifully followed the South African home at Monza), and won the last World Drivers’ Championship in a Ferrari until Michael Schumacher twenty one years later. The car was a compromise ground effect design due to the configuration of the Ferrari wide angle flat-12, which was overtaken in due course by the extremely successful Williams FW07, but not before racking up the necessary points to take both titles that year.

1980s[edit]

Michele Alboreto was Alain Prost‘s main challenger for the Championship in 1985

Gerhard Berger driving for Ferrari at the 1988 Canadian Grand Prix

Ferrari and Jody Scheckter‘s 1980 title defence was unsuccessful, as the team’s rivals made up ground at the expense of the reigning champions. The team scored a meagre total of eight points all season, and Scheckter elected to retire at its conclusion. For the 1981 season, Ferrari signed Didier Pironi to partner Gilles Villeneuve and also introduced its own turbo-charged engine, which provided more power in a more compact design than the previous normally aspirated, twelve-cylinder arrangement. The season was a distinct improvement on the last, Villeneuve winning the Monaco and Spanish Grands Prix, but a potential championship challenge was stymied by the difficult handling and extremely poor aerodynamics of the car. However, the lessons learnt from the team’s first racing experience with a turbo car in F1 prepared it well for 1982. Throughout this season, the Ferrari was the best package, in terms of a balance between speed and reliability.

The year was, however, marred by the loss of both of Ferrari’s drivers. Team leader and favourite driver of Enzo Ferrari, Villeneuve, died in a crash during qualifying at the Belgian Grand Prix, while Pironi suffered career-ending injuries before the German Grand Prix later in the season. Ferrari first called up Patrick Tambay, in place of the late Villeneuve, and later Mario Andretti in an effort to protect Pironi’s lead in the championship, but to no avail. Ferrari did, however, win the Constructors’ Championship. In that same year the Formula One works moved partially out of the original Maranello factory into its own autonomous facility, still in Maranello but directly next to the Fiorano test circuit.

Four wins by René Arnoux and Patrick Tambay won the team another constructors’ title in 1983, but neither driver was consistent enough to challenge for the drivers’ title. Patrick Tambay took an especially emotional victory at San Marino in front of the Tifosi, but left to join the Renault team at the end of the season. Michele Alboreto was hired for 1984 following his impressive performances during previous year driving a Cosworth-powered Tyrrell. He won the Belgian Grand Prix, but the team’s performance was not competitive enough to challenge the dominant McLarens of Niki Lauda and Alain Prost. In the following year, however, Alboreto was Prost’s closest challenger for the championship, leading it at one stage before the team’s competitiveness slumped in the final races. Arnoux, meanwhile, fell out with the team and was replaced by Stefan Johansson after the first race of the season. 1986 continued the disappointing trend of the previous season as neither Alboreto nor Johansson could win a race, and never looked like doing so. For 1987, Johansson moved to McLaren and was replaced by Gerhard Berger, who got the better of Alboreto as the season progressed and won the final two races of the championship as the car’s form improved towards the end of the season. The team remained competitive into 1988, finishing second in the Constructors’ Championship, but a long way behind McLaren, who once again dominated the season.

The 1988 season also witnessed the end of Enzo Ferrari‘s ownership of the team. On 14 August 1988, Ferrari died at the age of 90. Fiat’s share of the company was raised to 90% with Enzo’s only remaining son, Piero Ferrari, inheriting the remaining share from his father. Just under a month after Enzo’s death, Berger and Alboreto completed a historic 1–2 at the Italian Grand Prix, the only time a team other than McLaren won a Grand Prix in the 1988 season. Berger dedicated the win to the late Enzo Ferrari.

1989 saw the end of turbo-charging in Formula One. From this date, the formula was for 3.5-litre normally aspirated engines of no greater than 12 cylinders, which was a direct consequence of lobbying by Ferrari for the previous few years. The team went so far as to construct an Indycar, the Ferrari 637, as a threat to the FIA that if they did not get what they wanted, namely the allowance of V12 engines under the revised formula, they could take part in another series. Due to the expected extreme high revs and consequent narrow power band expected of the new engines, technical director John Barnard insisted upon the development of a revolutionary new gear-shifting arrangement – the paddle-operated, semi-automatic gearbox. In pre season testing, the experimental system proved extremely troublesome, with newly arrived driver Nigel Mansell being unable to compete more than a handful of laps, but nonetheless they managed a debut win at the opening round in Brazil. Horrendous reliability led to Berger being unable to score a point until a run of podiums at Monza, Estoril and Jerez including a win at Estoril. Mansell scored a memorable win at Budapest where he overtook world champion Ayrton Senna for the win after qualifying far down the field in twelfth. He then dedicated the race to the memory of Enzo Ferrari as the win came a year after the latter’s death.

1990s[edit]

After a title challenge in 1990, 1991 was bitterly disappointing for Ferrari and Alain Prost

Jean Alesi driving for Ferrari at the 1995 Canadian Grand Prix

Michael Schumacher at the 1997 German Grand Prix during his second year with Ferrari

Schumacher’s championship aspirations were ended by a leg-breaking accident in 1999. Eddie Irvine (pictured) stepped up to lead the team and only lost the drivers’ title to Mika Häkkinen by two points, while Ferrari won its first Constructors’ Championship since 1983

Then triple world champion Alain Prost left McLaren to partner Mansell at Ferrari for the 1990 Formula One season. As reigning world champion, Prost assumed the role of lead driver, much to teammate Mansell’s dismay. In his autobiography, Mansell claimed that Ferrari had switched his car with Prost’s at the 1990 British Grand Prix without his foreknowledge.[27] Mansell departed Ferrari at the end of the 1990 season. Prost won five races and entered the penultimate round of the season, the controversial 1990 Japanese Grand Prix, with a nine-point deficit to McLaren driver and former teammate Ayrton Senna. A controversial first-lap collision between Senna and Prost allowed Senna to secure the 1990 FIA Formula One World Drivers’ Championship, with Prost ranking second.

Mansell was replaced by Frenchman Jean Alesi, previously driving for Tyrrell, for the 1991 Formula One season. However, Ferrari had entered a downturn in 1991, partially as their famous V12 engine was no longer competitive against the smaller, lighter and more fuel efficient V10s of their competitors. Prost won no races, only getting onto the podium five times. He afterwards publicly criticised the team, described his car as harder to drive than “a truck”,[28] and was fired prior to the end of the season, right before the Australian Grand Prix.[29] Prost was replaced by Italian Gianni Morbidelli. The team won no races between 1991 and 1993.

Gerhard Berger returned to Ferrari to partner Alesi in 1993. Jean Todt was hired as team principal. With the Ferrari 412T, Berger and Alesi proved the car’s competitiveness throughout the two seasons, with a brace of podium places and four pole positions. Bad luck limited the number of wins to one each for both Berger (1994 German Grand Prix) and Alesi (1995 Canadian Grand Prix), particularly Alesi who was in a position to win at Monza and the Nürburgring in 1995, but the car was a solid and competitive proposition. Berger’s win, achieved after three seasons without any triumph in a race, set a record of at least one victory in a season during the following twenty consecutive seasons.

Ferrari completely changed their driver line-up for the 1996 Formula One season, replacing Berger and Alesi with former Jordan driver Eddie Irvine, and two-time defending world champion (former Benetton driver) Michael Schumacher, for a salary of around $30 million a year. Many members of the Benetton team’s technical staff followed, namely Ross Brawn (technical director) and Rory Byrne (chief designer). New engine rules reducing engine capacity from 3500cc to 3000cc required Ferrari to switch to the (3.0L) V10 engine for 1996.

Despite poor reliability, Michael Schumacher managed to score three wins during the 1996 season with the Ferrari F310. In very wet conditions at the Spanish Grand Prix, despite starting from the second row and having a poor start, Schumacher climbed back up the order to win the race by 45 seconds over now Benetton driver Jean Alesi. This was the first Formula One victory for a Ferrari V10 engine.[30] Both Ferrari drivers retired from the three subsequent rounds on the calendar, the Canadian Grand Prix, the French Grand Prix, where Schumacher had qualified in pole position but failed to start after an engine failure on the formation lap, and the British Grand Prix respectively. At the 1996 Belgian Grand Prix, superior pit strategy enabled Schumacher to emerge ahead of Williams driver Jacques Villeneuve to score his second win of the season. Schumacher followed up his Belgian win by winning the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, Ferrari’s first win on home soil since 1988. Ferrari finished second in the Constructors’ Championship, with Schumacher finishing third in the drivers’ standings and Irvine tenth.

For the 1997 Formula One season, the increased reliability of the F310B enabled Ferrari to challenge for its first Drivers’ Championship since Jody Scheckter had won Ferrari’s last drivers’ title 18 years earlier, in 1979. Michael Schumacher finished on the podium eight times during the course of the season, including five wins, and went into the final round leading Williams driver Jacques Villeneuve by one point.[31] On Lap 48 of the final round of the 1997 season, the 1997 European Grand Prix at Jerez, Michael Schumacher and Jacques Villeneuve collided as the latter attempted to overtake for the race lead down the inside of the Dry Sac corner. Schumacher retired from the race, and Villeneuve clinched the 1997 Drivers’ Championship with a third-place finish.[32] The stewards of the event had initially deemed the collision a racing incident.[33] However, Schumacher was then summoned and disqualified from the 1997 World Drivers’ Championship for unsportsmanlike conduct in an extraordinary meeting of the FIA World Motor Sport Council on 11 November 1997.[34] Ferrari’s Constructors’ Championship points, however, remained intact, and the team finished second overall. Eddie Irvine, having scored five podiums throughout the season, was classified seventh in the drivers’ standings.

Following the dramatic 1997 season, Ferrari came out with an all new car to fit the new regulations for 1998, the F300. Although it was a competitive package, the McLaren–Mercedes MP4/13 was most often stronger. Schumacher won six races that season including three in a row at Canada, France and Great Britain. The Hungarian Grand Prix was won after a tactical master-stroke by Brawn decided to make the car run a 3-stop strategy as opposed to McLaren’s 2. Schumacher then went on to lead Irvine home to Ferrari’s first 1–2 at Monza since the memorable 1988 race after Enzo Ferrari’s death. Schumacher lost the title to McLaren’s Mika Häkkinen at Suzuka after he stalled on the front row then suffered a mid-race puncture. Irvine was fourth in the championship with Ferrari second in the constructors’ title.

The 1999 Formula One season started well for Ferrari, the team winning three of the first four races of the season. Eddie Irvine scored his maiden career win at the season-opening Australian Grand Prix.[35] Michael Schumacher scored back-to-back victories at the San Marino Grand Prix and the Monaco Grand Prix.[36][37] The team’s fortunes began to change in Canada, however, with Michael Schumacher retiring from the lead of the race after sliding into the wall at the exit of the final chicane of the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve, since known as the “Wall of Champions“.[38][39] On Lap 1 of the British Grand Prix at Silverstone, Schumacher crashed heavily at Stowe Corner after his rear brake failed, sending him off the circuit after he locked up at approximately 130 mph. He broke his lower right leg as a result, forcing him to miss the next six races and ending his bid for the 1999 Drivers’ Championship.[40] Ferrari replaced him with Mika Salo.[41] Irvine became Ferrari’s main contender for the drivers’ title. He won the next two rounds in Austria and in Germany. Schumacher returned for the final two races of the season, handing Irvine the race lead and eventual win at the inaugural Malaysian Grand Prix. Both Ferrari drivers had been disqualified after the race as the side deflector panel on both cars was deemed to have been one centimetre too long, making Mika Häkkinen the provisional Drivers’ Champion.[42] However, both Ferrari cars were reinstated on appeal, and Irvine led the drivers’ standings by four points over Häkkinen going into the final round.[43] Irvine ultimately fell short of the 1999 Drivers’ Championship at the season-ending Japanese Grand Prix, where he finished third, losing to Häkkinen by two points in the final standings. Schumacher’s second place in the race helped Ferrari secure the 1999 Constructors’ Championship, their first since 1983.[44][45]

2000s[edit]

Ferrari replaced Irvine with Rubens Barrichello ahead of the 2000 Formula One season.[46] The season started well, with Schumacher and Barrichello scoring a 1–2 finish in Australia after both McLaren drivers retired from the race.[47] Schumacher followed his Australian win with consecutive victories in Brazil and in San Marino, to lead the drivers’ standings by 21 points after only three races.[48][49] Schumacher’s early points lead was minimised, however, after a string of consecutive retirements in France, Austria, and Germany left him with only a two-point lead over reigning world champion Mika Häkkinen. At the German Grand Prix at Hockenheim, Barrichello scored his maiden career win after starting 18th on the grid.[50] At the 2000 Italian Grand Prix, Schumacher scored his 41st career victory to match the victory tally of Ayrton Senna. During the post-race press conference, he burst into tears when asked if the record “meant a lot” to him.[51] Schumacher won the 2000 Drivers’ Championship in the F1-2000 at the Japanese Grand Prix, becoming Ferrari’s first Drivers’ Champion since Jody Scheckter in 1979.[52] Barrichello was classified fourth in the final standings, and Ferrari took its second consecutive Constructors’ Championship.[53]

Michael Schumacher and Ferrari continued their dominant run into the 2001 Formula One season, winning the first two races in Australia[54] and in Malaysia.[55] Schumacher took his third victory of the season when, on the last lap of the Spanish Grand Prix, McLaren driver Mika Häkkinen retired from the race lead with mechanical failure.[56] Wins in Monaco, Europe, and France helped Schumacher secure his lead in the drivers’ standings, and he secured his fourth Drivers’ Championship after winning the Hungarian Grand Prix, with four races remaining.[57] At the Belgian Grand Prix, Michael Schumacher scored his 52nd career victory to surpass Alain Prost’s record of most Grand Prix victories.[58] The Italian Grand Prix was the first Formula One race held after the September 11 attacks in the United States.[59] Ferrari removed all advertising and painted the nosecones of both of its cars black as a mark of respect to the victims.[60] Ferrari won their third consecutive Constructors’ Championship, as Barrichello was classified third in the drivers’ standings, despite scoring no wins.

Ferrari dominated the 2002 Formula One season, the team winning 15 out of 17 races (Schumacher 11, Barrichello 4) to match McLaren’s record number of wins in a season, set back in 1988.[61] Their successful run, however, was tainted by a team orders controversy at the Austrian Grand Prix. In a replay of 2001, Barrichello was asked to give way to Schumacher on the final lap of the Grand Prix, except this time for the win. An embarrassed Schumacher then pushed Barrichello to the top step of the podium, and Ferrari were subsequently fined $1 million by the FIA for interfering with podium procedures.[62] This debacle eventually led to the banning of team orders ahead of the 2003 season. Schumacher matched Juan Manuel Fangio’s record of five world championships, set in the 1950s, at the 2002 French Grand Prix.[63] Ferrari finished 1–2 at the United States Grand Prix, Barrichello leading Schumacher after the latter had slowed down on the last lap to attempt a ‘dead heat’ with his teammate, by a margin of 0.011 seconds, in one of the closest finishes in Formula One history.[64][65]

The first race of the 2003 Formula One season, the Australian Grand Prix, brought Ferrari’s domination to a halt, as it was the first race since the 1999 European Grand Prix where neither Ferrari driver had finished on the podium. McLaren had an early lead in the standings, but Ferrari had closed the points gap by the Canadian Grand Prix. Both championships were still undecided at the last round of the 2003 season, the Japanese Grand Prix. After having started 14th, Schumacher finished eighth in the race, and clinched his sixth championship by two points over McLaren driver Kimi Räikkönen, surpassing Juan Manuel Fangio’s record; Ferrari managed to win their 13th Constructors’ Championship with Rubens Barrichello winning the race after starting from pole position.[66] In 2003, F1 magazine reported that Ferrari’s budget was $443,800,000.[67]

The 2004 Formula One season saw Ferrari return to dominance. Schumacher won 13 of the 18 races, and 12 of the first 13 of the season– both F1 records. He won his seventh and final Drivers’ Championship by finishing second at the Belgian Grand Prix, with four races still remaining. Barrichello finished second in the standings, and Ferrari easily wrapped up the Constructors’ Championship. Barrichello won twice, at the Italian Grand Prix and the Chinese Grand Prix respectively.

The 2005 Formula One season saw a change of fortune for Ferrari. The team started the year with the F2004M, a modified version of the previous year’s car pending full development of their new car, the F2005, which was scheduled to be introduced at the Spanish Grand Prix. The car lacked pace in comparison with other teams (particularly McLaren and Renault who started the year with brand new cars). Alarmed by poor performances in the Australian Grand Prix and in the Malaysian Grand Prix, the F2005 was rushed into service at the third round, the Bahrain Grand Prix, where Schumacher retired from hydraulics failure, his first mechanical failure since the 2001 German Grand Prix, ending a run of 58 Grands Prix without technical failure.

The poor relative performance of the team’s Bridgestone tyres was also cited as a reason for Ferrari’s lack of performance in 2005. The Bridgestone tyres failed to give sufficient grip in qualifying and were not as durable as their Michelin rivals during races. However, the tyres provided for the San Marino Grand Prix were more competitive, and the Bridgestone tyres supplied for the United States Grand Prix allowed the three Bridgestone teams to race, while the seven Michelin teams were forced to withdraw.

In August 2005, Rubens Barrichello announced that he was leaving Ferrari at the end of the year to join the Honda team, citing a need for ‘renewed motivation’, and rumoured to have been ‘unhappy with his continued status as number two to Schumacher’.[68][69] Ferrari named then Sauber driver Felipe Massa as Barrichello’s replacement for the 2006 Formula One season.

Ferrari’s 2006 car, the 248 F1, was the first car developed entirely under Aldo Costa, after the departure of Rory Byrne.[70] Ferrari finished 1–2 in the United States Grand Prix. Massa won his first race at the Turkish Grand Prix, and Schumacher announced his retirement at the Italian Grand Prix, which he won. Kimi Räikkönen was announced as Schumacher’s replacement for the 2007 season.[70] Still in contention for the championship, Schumacher won his final race at the Chinese Grand Prix, but ultimately fell short of an eighth drivers title.[70] At the Brazilian Grand Prix Schumacher finished fourth in his final race for Ferrari, setting the fastest lap following a puncture, the race was won by Massa. Ferrari finished five points behind Renault for the Constructors’ Championship.[70]

Felipe Massa won his home race driving for Ferrari at the 2006 Brazilian Grand Prix

Räikkönen celebrates his race win and 2007 Drivers’ Championship at the 2007 Brazilian GP

In the F2007, Kimi Räikkönen won the inaugural race of the 2007 Formula One season, the first Ferrari driver to win on his Ferrari debut since Nigel Mansell in 1989. Räikkönen subsequently won the Drivers’ Championship by one point over both McLaren drivers, and, with nine victories, Ferrari won the Constructors’ Championship.

The 2007 Formula One espionage controversy directly concerned Ferrari employee Nigel Stepney, who was dismissed by the team as a result.[71] The case revolved around the theft of technical information.[72]

After the end of the 2007 season, Ferrari President Luca Cordero di Montezemolo announced a new structure for the team, with Jean Todt departing the team principal role and moving up to his senior role as CEO of the company, Stefano Domenicali took over as team principal as Ross Brawn declined a return following his sabbatical (he became Team Principal of Honda), Aldo Costa as technical director and Mario Almondo as Operations Director.[73] It had been reported that this completed a shift in Ferrari personnel where the older foreign leadership was replaced with a new one composed mostly of Italians.[74]

The F2008 was Ferrari’s car for the 2008 Formula One season. Räikkönen led the championship early on after taking two victories from the early rounds, but multiple incidents for him later on saw Massa battle McLaren’s Lewis Hamilton for the Drivers’ Championship until the end of the season.[75][76] Massa went into the final race of the season, the Brazilian Grand Prix, in contention for the championship. Massa won the race, but ultimately lost the drivers’ title to Hamilton after the latter managed to get past Timo Glock for fifth place on the final lap of the race.[77] However, Ferrari did win the Constructors’ World Championship. In October 2008, Ferrari issued a statement saying that they would reconsider their participation in Formula One beyond the 2009 Formula One season, due to the FIA’s desire to introduce standardised engines from 2010.[78] The FIA’s plan was never implemented.

Ferrari started the 2009 Formula One season poorly with the F60, recording their worst start to a season since 1981.[79] During qualifying for the 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix, Felipe Massa was injured when he was struck by a spring that had detached from the rear suspension of Rubens Barrichello’s Brawn BGP 001.[80] He was poised to be replaced by former Ferrari teammate and seven-time Formula One champion Michael Schumacher as of the European Grand Prix, but the latter was sidelined by a motorbike injury he had sustained earlier in the year.[81][82] Massa was eventually replaced by Luca Badoer, and later by Giancarlo Fisichella, for the remainder of the 2009 season.[83] Ferrari recorded their only win of the 2009 season at the Belgian Grand Prix, where Kimi Räikkönen won ahead of pole-sitter Giancarlo Fisichella (Force India) after having started sixth.[84]

Domination in the early 2000s[edit]

Season Chassis Races Wins Pole positions 1–2 finishes Podiums Fastest laps Average winning margin Points Percentage of max attainable points WDC WCC
2000 F1-2000 17 10 10 3 21 4 12.1 seconds 170 63% 1st, 4th 1st
2001 F2001 17 9 11 3 24 3 14.8 seconds 179 66% 1st, 3rd 1st
2002 F2001, F2002 17 15 10 9 27 10 19.9 seconds 221 81% 1st, 2nd 1st
2003 F2002B, F2003-GA 16 8 8 0 16 8 6.5 seconds 158 62% 1st, 4th 1st
2004 F2004 18 15 11 8 29 14 17.5 seconds 262 81% 1st, 2nd 1st

2010s[edit]

Fernando Alonso narrowly missed out on the 2010 drivers’ title

Despite still having a year of his contract remaining, Räikkönen left Ferrari and was replaced by the double world champion Fernando Alonso.[85][86] Ferrari announced that Felipe Massa would partner Fernando Alonso until at least the end of the 2012 Formula One season.[87]

The 2010 Formula One season started with Fernando Alonso leading a Ferrari 1–2, with Massa second, at the 2010 Bahrain Grand Prix.[88] However, after the first seven races, Ferrari were lying third in the Constructors’ Championship, following a string of low points finishes. Ferrari remained third in the Constructors’ Championship following a controversial 1–2 finish at the German Grand Prix, where Ferrari were deemed to have given an order to Felipe Massa to give the lead of the race to Fernando Alonso. Team orders had been banned in Formula One since 2003. The stewards fined Ferrari $100,000 – the maximum penalty race stewards could impose. The incident was referred to the FIA World Motor Sport Council for review, and no further action was taken. Alonso won further races at Monza, Singapore and the inaugural race in Korea as he finished the season second to Sebastian Vettel.

Ferrari launched its 2011 car, the Ferrari 150º Italia in January 2011, with Ford declaring intentions to sue over the use of the F150 name – under which the car had been launched – Ferrari began referring to the car as the “F150th Italia”.[89] In March 2011, the car’s name was changed again to “150º Italia”, with the Italian language ordinal indicator º being used to replace the English language -th.[90] Ford and Ferrari also settled their legal matter, asking for the case to be dismissed at a court in Detroit.[91] In 2011 Alonso renewed his contract with Ferrari to at least the end of the 2016 season.[92] Massa renewed his contract for one more season alongside Alonso.[93]

The 2012 Formula One season saw Ferrari continue with the driver pairing of the previous two years of Fernando Alonso and Felipe Massa,[87][94] with Alonso once again narrowly missing out on the drivers’ title.

Ferrari’s car for the 2013 Formula One season is the Ferrari F138. Massa was replaced by Kimi Räikkönen for 2014, while Alonso was retained. Despite having such a line-up, the team struggled throughout the season, only achieving two podiums and finishing fourth in the Constructors’ Championship behind a resurgent Williams, marking Ferrari’s first winless season since 1993. Stefano Domenicali was replaced as team principal by Marco Mattiacci. Prior to the 2014 Italian Grand Prix, Luca Cordero di Montezemolo announced his resignation as Ferrari chairman. Räikkönen was retained for the 2015 season while Alonso left the team, to rejoin McLaren. He was replaced by Sebastian Vettel, who left Red Bull Racing.[95] In October 2014, the team announced replacing its outdated simulator software to the more capable rFpro.[96][97][98]

After a massive management overhaul, with Sergio Marchionne and Maurizio Arrivabene replacing di Montezemolo and Mattiacci as Ferrari President and Team Principal respectively, the team enjoyed an improved start to the 2015 season, with Sebastian Vettel taking third in Australia. However, Räikkönen was forced to retire from the race due to a loose wheel. The team ended their 34-race winless streak in Malaysia when Vettel held off both Mercedes cars to claim his first victory since leaving Red Bull at the end of the previous year. Sebastian Vettel managed to win twice more for Ferrari in 2015, at the 2015 Hungarian Grand Prix, and finally at the 2015 Singapore Grand Prix. Vettel and Räikkönen finished third and fourth respectively in the drivers’ standings.

Sebastian Vettel at the 2015 Malaysian Grand Prix, where he took his first win for Ferrari

After scoring no wins during the 2016 season, Ferrari scored their 225th Formula One victory at the 2017 Australian Grand Prix, courtesy of Sebastian Vettel, who had not won a race since the 2015 Singapore Grand Prix.[99] Vettel took the lead of the World Drivers’ Championship standings, the first time a Ferrari driver had done so since the 2012 Japanese Grand Prix, 1,625 days prior, and became the first non-Mercedes driver to do so since Vettel himself had done so at the end of the 2013 season. It was also the first time a team other than Mercedes led the World Constructors’ Championship standings since the start of 2014.[100] At the Chinese Grand Prix, Vettel finished second behind Mercedes driver Lewis Hamilton, while Kimi Räikkönen finished fifth.[101] Vettel took his second victory of the season at the 2017 Bahrain Grand Prix after starting third to extend his lead in the Drivers’ Championship standings. Räikkönen’s fourth place in the race gave Ferrari a three-point lead in the Constructors’ Championship standings.[102]

Ferrari’s first 1–2 finish since 2010 came at the Monaco Grand Prix, where Vettel became the first Ferrari driver to win in Monaco since Michael Schumacher had done so 16 years earlier, in 2001.[103] The event also marked Kimi Räikkönen’s first pole position since the 2008 French Grand Prix, almost nine years earlier, after beating Vettel by 0.043 seconds in qualifying. Controversy followed at the 2017 Azerbaijan Grand Prix. On lap 19 of the Grand Prix, immediately prior to the Safety Car restart, Sebastian Vettel and Lewis Hamilton collided after the former hit the latter in the rear. Vettel, having judged Hamilton, the leader, to have brake-tested him at the exit of Turn 15 of the Baku City Circuit, then drove alongside him and turned into him. Vettel was awarded a 10-second stop-and-go penalty for his actions, losing a win after Hamilton had issues of his own. Vettel, however, still re-emerged ahead of Hamilton after the former served his penalty and extended his lead in the Drivers’ Championship.[104] The FIA, the sport’s governing body, summoned Vettel to an extraordinary meeting of the FIA World Motor Sport Council for his actions at the Azerbaijan Grand Prix, but ruled that no further action was necessary after Vettel issued a full apology.[105] After four races without a win, Ferrari returned to success at the Hungarian Grand Prix with a victory by Sebastian Vettel and their second 1–2 of the season. Vettel lost his lead in the Drivers’ Championship to Hamilton at the Italian Grand Prix,[106] on Ferrari home ground.

In 2017 Ferrari celebrated their 70th anniversary and ran a special livery at their home race at Monza

After taking pole position at the next race in Singapore and Hamilton only qualifying fifth,[107] Vettel looked set to regain the championship lead, however a crash between him, Raikkonen and Red Bull‘s Max Verstappen right after the start of the race took all three drivers out and elevated Hamilton to the lead. Hamilton went on to win the Grand Prix and extended his championship lead to 28 points.[108] In Malaysia, Vettel failed to set a time in qualifying due to an engine issue he suffered in Free Practice 3, a few hours earlier, and therefore started last on the grid,[109] while Hamilton took pole. Raikkonen qualified second but failed to even start the race after yet another engine issue.[110] Vettel climbed up to fourth in the race, but Hamilton extended his advantage to 34 points after finishing second.[111] In Japan, Vettel and Ferrari’s championship aspirations took yet another blow, after the German retired on lap 4 due to a spark plug failure.[112] Mercedes claimed the Constructos’ Championship at the United States Grand Prix,[113] while Hamilton claimed the Drivers’ Championship at the next race in Mexico.[114] Vettel took Ferrari’s first win since Hungary and the last of 2017 in Brazil.[115]

On 22 August 2017, Ferrari announced that Kimi Räikkönen had been re-signed for the 2018 season.[116] On 26 August 2017, Ferrari announced that Sebastian Vettel had also re-signed, meaning that Ferrari’s duo of drivers would remain unchanged for the fourth consecutive year in 2018.[117] On 11 September 2018, Ferrari announced that Räikkönen would be leaving for Sauber and Charles Leclerc and Vettel would be the team’s race drivers for 2019. On 7 January 2019, Ferrari announced that Maurizio Arrivabene had been replaced by Mattia Binotto as team principal for the 2019 season.[1]

Engine supply[edit]

Ferrari has always produced engines for its own Formula One cars, and has also supplied engines to other teams. Ferrari has previously supplied engines to Minardi (1991), Scuderia Italia (1992–1993), Sauber (1997–2005 with engines badged as ‘Petronas‘, and 2010–2018), Prost (2001, badged ‘Acer‘), Red Bull Racing (2006), Spyker (2007), Scuderia Toro Rosso (2007–2013, 2016), Force India (2008) and Marussia (2014–2015).

When regulations changed in 2014, Cosworth decided not to make the new V6 turbo engines. Marussia, the only team that Cosworth supplied at the time, signed a multi-year deal with Ferrari, starting in 2014. As of 2020, Ferrari supplies the Haas F1 Team and Alfa Romeo Racing.[118]

Relationship with governing body[edit]

Ferrari did not enter the first ever race of the championship, the 1950 British Grand Prix due to a dispute with the organisers over “start money”. In the 1960s Ferrari withdrew from several races in ‘strike’ actions.

In 1987, Ferrari considered abandoning Formula One for the American IndyCar series. This threat was used as a bargaining tool with the FIA – Enzo Ferrari offered to cancel the IndyCar Project and commit to Formula One on the condition that the technical regulations were not changed to exclude V12 engines. The FIA agreed to this, and the IndyCar project was shelved, although a car, the Ferrari 637 had already been constructed.

In 2009, it had emerged that Ferrari had an FIA-sanctioned veto on the technical regulations.[119]

Team orders controversies[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org

Team orders have proven controversial at several points in Ferrari’s history.

At the 1982 San Marino Grand Prix, the two Ferraris were leading with Gilles Villeneuve ahead of Didier Pironi. The team showed the ‘slow’ sign to its drivers, and, as per a pre-race agreement, the driver leading at that point was expected to take the win of the Grand Prix. Villeneuve slowed, and expected that Pironi would follow, but the latter did not, and passed Villeneuve. Villeneuve was angered by what he saw as betrayal by his teammate, and at one point had even refused to go onto the podium.[120] This feud is often considered to have been a contributory factor to his fatal accident in qualifying at the next race, the 1982 Belgian Grand Prix.

UK Should Not Expect Big Changes

At the 2002 Austrian Grand Prix, after having started from pole position and leading the first 70 laps, Rubens Barrichello was instructed to let Ferrari teammate Michael Schumacher pass him, a move that proved to be unpopular among many Formula One fans and the Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile, the sport’s governing body.[121][122] Following this incident and others in which team orders were used, such as McLaren‘s use of them at the 1997 European Grand Prix and at the 1998 Australian Grand Prix, and Jordan Grand Prix‘s at the 1998 Belgian Grand Prix, team orders in Formula One were officially banned ahead of the 2003 Formula One season.[123][124][125]

On lap 49 of the 2010 German Grand Prix, Fernando Alonso went past Felipe Massa for the race lead, after Ferrari had informed Massa that Alonso was ‘faster than him’. This communication has widely been interpreted as a team order from Ferrari. Alonso won the race, with Massa finishing second and Sebastian Vettel taking the final place on the podium.[126] Ferrari were fined the maximum penalty available to the stewards, $100,000, for breach of regulations and for ‘bringing the sport into disrepute’ as per ‘Article 151c’ of the International Sporting Code. Ferrari said they would not contest the fine. The team were referred to the FIA World Motor Sport Council, where the Council upheld the view of the stewards, but did not take any further action.[127][128]

F1 team sponsorship[edit]

A Ferrari truck displaying Ferrari’s sponsors (2008)

The Ferrari Formula One team was resistant to sponsorship for many years and it was not until 1977 that the cars began to feature the logo of the Fiat group (which had been the owners of the Ferrari company since 1969). Until the 1980s, the only other companies whose logos appeared on Ferrari’s F1 cars were technical partners such as Magneti Marelli, Brembo and Agip.

At the end of the 1996 season Philip Morris International through its brand Marlboro withdrew its sponsorship agreement with McLaren after 22 years (since 1974) to become the title sponsor of Ferrari, resulting to the change of the official team´s name to Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro from the beginning of the 1997 season until the 2011 European Grand Prix. Marlboro had already been Ferrari´s minor sponsor since the 1984 season and increased to the team´s major sponsorship in the 1993 season. In September 2005 Ferrari signed an extension of the arrangement until 2011 at a time when advertising of tobacco sponsorship had become illegal in the European Union and other major teams had withdrawn from relationships with tobacco companies (e.g., McLaren had ended its eight-year relationship with West). In reporting the deal, F1 Racing magazine judged it to be a ‘black day’ for the sport, putting non-tobacco funded teams at a disadvantage and discouraging other brands from entering a sport still associated with tobacco. The magazine estimated that in the period between 2005 and 2011 Ferrari received $1 billion from the agreement. The last time Ferrari ran explicit tobacco sponsorship on the car was in the 2007 Chinese Grand Prix, with barcodes and other subliminal markers used afterwards. On 8 July 2011, it was announced that the ‘Marlboro‘ section of its official team name had been removed from the 2011 British Grand Prix onwards, following complaints from sponsorship regulators.[129] As a consequence, the official team´s name was reverted back to Scuderia Ferrari. At the 2018 Japanese Grand Prix Ferrari added Philip Morris International’s new ‘Mission Winnow’ project logos to the car and team clothing.[130] Although Mission Winnow is described as a non-tobacco brand “dedicated to science, technology and innovation”, commentators such as The Guardian‘s Richard Williams have noted that the logos incorporate elements whose shapes mimic the iconic Marlboro cigarette packet design.[131] In 2019 ‘Mission Winnow’ became the team’s title sponsor, and the team originally entered the 2019 F1 season as ‘Scuderia Ferrari Mission Winnow’.[132] However, ‘Mission Winnow’ was dropped from team name before the season opener,[133] while the car’s ‘Mission Winnow’ logos were replaced by a special 90th anniversary logo[134] after Australian authorities had launched an investigation into whether the initiative introduced by Philip Morris contravened laws banning tobacco advertising.[135] ‘Mission Winnow’ was restored for the second race of the season[136] and used until the Monaco Grand Prix.[137] The ‘Mission Winnow’ logos were again replaced by the 90th anniversary logos for the Canadian until the Russian Grand Prix.[135] Before the ‘Mission Winnow’ returned at the Japanese Grand Prix.[138]

On 10 September 2009, Ferrari announced that it would be sponsored by Santander from 2010 on a five-year contract.[139] It was believed[by whom?] that Santander would pay around €40 million ($56.5 million, £35 million) per season to sponsor Ferrari. The contract was subsequently extended to end in late 2017.[140]

As part of the deal with Acer, Acer was allowed to sell Ferrari-badged laptops.[141] On the other hand, in early 2009 semiconductor chip maker AMD announced it had decided to drop its sponsorship of the team and was just waiting for its contract to expire after its former vice-president / sales executive (who was an avid fan of motorsports) had left the company.[142]

On 3 July 2014, Ferrari announced a two-year sponsorship agreement with the United States-based Haas Automation tool company, which transferred into a powertrain deal in 2016 when the Haas F1 Team entered the sport.[143]

On 14 April 2018, AMD announced a multi-year sponsorship with Scuderia Ferrari on the occasion of the Chinese Grand Prix held on the Shanghai Circuit. The AMD logo was visible on the nose of the SF71H.[144]

The companies currently sponsoring Scuderia Ferrari for the 2019 season include Shell, Ray-Ban, Kaspersky Lab, Shell, UPS, Lenovo, Weichai Holding Group Co., Ltd., Hublot, Mahle GmbH, OMR and AMD.[145]

The official suppliers of Scuderia Ferrari for the 2019 season include Pirelli, Puma, EightCap, Laszmoe, Infor, Experis-Veritaaq, SKF, Magneti Marelli, NGK, Brembo, Riedel Communications, VistaJet and Iveco.[145] Other suppliers include Alfa Romeo, Palantir Technologies, Bell Sports and OZ Group.[145]

Formula One results[edit]

As a constructor, Ferrari has achieved the following:

  • Constructors’ Championships winning percentage: 25.8%
  • Drivers’ Championships winning percentage: 21.4%
  • Winning percentage: 24%[12]

Ferrari has achieved unparalleled success in Formula One and holds many significant records including (all numbers are based on World Championship events only):

Record As a team As a constructor
Most Constructors’ Championships 16 16
Most Drivers’ Championships 15 15
Most Grands Prix participated 993[5] 993
Most Grands Prix started 990[6] 991[11]
Most wins 237[7] 238[12]
Most podium finishes 765 (in 579 races)[146][147] 770 (in 582 races)[147]
Most 1–2 finishes 83[148] 84[149]
Most pole positions 228 228
Most qualifying 1-2s 79[150] 79[150]
Most Constructors’ Championship points 8,257.5
Most Drivers’ Championship points 9,159.27[14]
Most fastest laps 253[9] 254[13]
Most consecutive seasons with at least one victory during a season 20 (1994–2013) 20 (1994–2013)

Ferrari is also the most successful F1 engine manufacturer, with 239 wins (having achieved a single non-Ferrari victory with Scuderia Toro Rosso at the 2008 Italian Grand Prix, as well as one Ferrari privateer win at the 1961 French Grand Prix).

Drivers’ Champions[edit]

Team Principals/Sporting Directors[edit]

[152]

Privateer entries[edit]

Between 1950 and 1966, numerous private teams entered Ferrari cars in World Championship events. Between them, these teams achieved 5 podium finishes, including Giancarlo Baghetti‘s win in the 1961 French Grand Prix, and a fastest lap (Baghetti in the 1961 Italian Grand Prix).

Formula Two[edit]

Ferrari competed in the Formula 2 series in several years, as follows:

Sportscar racing[edit]

Scuderia Ferrari

From the late 1940s to the early 1970s, Ferrari competed in sports car racing with great success, winning the World Sportscar Championship 13 times. Ferrari scored early successes in sportcars, taking wins in the 1950 and 1951 Mille Miglia, although the 1951 victory resulted in a lengthy litigation when Ascari crashed through a barrier and killed a local doctor.

In 1953, the World Sportscar Championship was established, and Scuderia Ferrari along with other manufacturers such as Aston Martin, Mercedes-Benz, Jaguar began to enter multiple factory backed cars in races such as the Le Mans 24 Hours. Ferrari launched a large range of sports racers over the next three years. This included the traditional compact Colombo V12-powered 166 MM and 250 MM; the larger V12 Lampredi 340 MM, 375 MM, 375 Plus and 410 S; and Jano 290 MM, 315 S and 335 S; the four-cylinder 500, 625, 750, and 860 Monzas, and the six-cylinder 376 S and 735 LM. With this potent line-up, Ferrari was able to claim six of the first seven WSC titles: 1953, 1954, 1956, 1957, and 1958.

This sportscar championship included road races such as the Carrera Panamericana in Mexico, Mille Miglia in Italy and the Sicilian Targa Florio. Ferrari cars (including non-works entries) won the Mille Miglia eight times, the Targa Florio seven times, and the 24 hours of Le Mans nine times. Throughout the 1960s, Ferrari were a dominant force in sportscar racing, winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans 6 years in a row from 1960 to 1965.

With the introduction of the Sports Prototypes class, Ferrari developed the P series, but 1970s were to be the last decade Ferrari entered as a works effort in sports car racing. After an uninspired performance in the 1973 F1 World Championship, Enzo Ferrari

Scuderia Ferrari

stopped all developmen

Scuderia Ferrari

t of sports cars in prototype and GT racing at the end of the year, in order to concentrate on Formula One.

Scuderia Ferrari

Ferrari cars were raced in a range of classes such as GT Racing by other entrants, but not by the factory Scuderia Ferrari team. In the 1990s, Ferrari returned to Sports prototypes as

Scuderia Ferrari

a constructor with the 333SP with success, although Scuderia Ferrari itself never raced this car.

Scuderia Ferrari

Scuderia Ferrari

In the 2010s, Italy’s AF Corse and United States’ Risi Competizione have competed with factory support in the GTE Pro/GTLM class at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, European Le Mans Series, FIA World Endurance Championship, American Le Mans Series and IMSA SportsCar Championship. Notable Ferrari GT factory drivers include Giancarlo Fisichella, Gianmaria Bruni, Mika Salo, Toni Vilander, Olivier Beretta, Kamui Kobayashi, Jaime Melo, James Calado, Alessandro Pier Guidi, Daniel Serra and Davide Rigon.

Scuderia Ferrari

The AF Corse won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in GTE Pro class three times: in 2012 and 2014 with the Ferrari 458 GT2 driven by Bruni, Fisichella and Vilander, and in 2019 with the Ferrari 488 GTE driven by Pier Guidi, Calado and Serra. They won also the FIA WEC GT manufacturers World Championship in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2016 and 2017, and the FIA WEC

Scuderia Ferrari

GT drivers championship in 2013, 2014 with Bruni and the 2017 with Calado and Pier Guidi, the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup in 2011 and the Petit Le Mans 2011 class GTE Pro with Bruni, Fisichella and Kaffer. All the Le Mans and FIA WEC title were won with the 51 car. They won also the FIA GT Championship GT2 class team chamionship in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009.

Scuderia Ferrari

The North American team Risi Competizione scored in GT2 class two win at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 2008 and 2009, the 2009 12 Hours of Sebring and 2010 12 Hours of Sebring, the 2009 Petit Le Mans with Ferrari 430 GT2. With the Ferrari 488 GTE and Ferrari factory drivers they won the 2016 and 2019 Petit Le Mans and scored multiple podium at 24 Hours of Daytona and 24 Hours of Le Mans

Scuderia Ferrari

Scuderia Ferrari

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  162. Did you know these facts on CBD OIL and Full Spectrum CBD Hemp Oil? Cannabinoids are isolated from hemp utilizing supercritical CO2 extraction. Thanks to modern-day technology, the resulting service is clean, totally free of heavy metals and unnecessary waxes, naturally present in the plant, and the sucked liquid has a normal, oily consistency. CBD oil consists of cannabidiol as a base ingredient and might include just trace quantities of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). Works as a memory enhancer, improving concentration and coordination of motions, eliminating swelling and recurrent infections. It improves the conduction of stimuli in the course of autoimmune illness (several sclerosis, amyotrophic sclerosis). It is advised by physicians and pharmacists as an antioxidant and substance that obstructs the action of proinflammatory cytokines (proteins), e.g. in Crohn’s disease or ulcerative intestine. RSO oil has a low CBD material, while high THC. Naturally, the crucial job of RSO is to cause a psychedelic result, although it can also promote “ill” brain structures. It is worth understanding that supplements of this type is mainly used by individuals to whom basic therapy does not bring relief in illness. The synergistic (enhancing) action of CBD and THC relative to each other is utilized here. When used individually, both cannabinoids can do much more together than. In addition, they jointly promote the department of non-active afferent neuron, nourish the fatty envelope of the nerves, and prevent myelin swelling that triggers loss of function in some autoimmune illness. There are likewise stories where marijuana in its natural kind softened spasticity, reduced the frequency of convulsions and seizures, and suppressed undesirable scrapie in Parkinson’s disease. This is where the idea of getting RSO, meant just for chronically ill people, stemmed . Both cannabis oil type CBD and RSO also include other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). The trick is not, however, that CBD frequently has actually a structure expanded to include flavones, flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids, amino acids and omega acids. The difference is mainly due to intentions directing humankind to utilize one or the other product. CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather helpful blend of cannabinoids, developed to secure versus 21st century illness. It’s finest to use all of these compounds together, as nature produced them and confined in cannabis inflorescences. Oil of marijuana in a type of hobby APR consists of little amounts of CBD, stabilized by the existence of THC. Producers concentrate on the synergistic impact of one compound relative to the other, while deserting the presence of CBC and CBG. Why such a choice? – Modern scientific research shows that CBD + THC handle severe autoimmune diseases, while CBC or CBG reveal very little activity in the presence of both substances, much like flavones, terpenes or flavonoids, therefore their content in the service appears to be unnecessary. In addition, the marijuana stress from which THC and CBD are derived contain minimal quantities of other cannabinoids. RSO oil is entirely unlawful in Poland, which is why it can not be gotten in any legally running shop on the market. Of course, there are a variety of amateur approaches for acquiring it, however it’s excellent to understand that compounds acquired synthetically in house labs are uncertain, untested, and the result unknown. The solvent for the production of family RSO is generally gas, alcohol and even kerosene, which rather of curing, toxin. Alcohols and their like hinder cannabinoids, therefore in truth, they don’t bring anything brand-new to the medical world. Marijuana oil has actually already marked a new period in which male ceased to fear what is unidentified, and began to rediscover what our forefathers had currently noticed and use the substantial capacity, at first look, a little bizarre relationships, associated mainly with pathology. Medical cannabis, contrary to its name, does not suggest fermented female inflorescences and leaves containing psychoactive substances coiled in so-called “Joints”, however a beneficial oil without psychoactive THC. A basic person, after taking dosages of medicinal marijuana and achieving the proper state of cannabinoids in the blood, can delight in increased resistance, lowered susceptibility to cancer, delayed aging and decreased risk of stroke or cardiovascular disease. CBD oil includes cannabidiol as a base component and may consist of just trace quantities of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). RSO oil has a low CBD material, while high THC. Both cannabis oil type CBD and RSO likewise contain other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). CBD medical cannabis oil is a rather useful mix of cannabinoids, created to secure against 21st century illness. Oil of cannabis in a kind of hobby APR contains small amounts of CBD, stabilized by the presence of THC.

  163. Currently it looks like Expression Engine is the top blogging platform available right now. (from what I’ve read) Is that what you are using on your blog?

  164. When I originally commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox now if a comment is added I get four emails concentrating on the same comment. Will there be any way you may remove me from that service? Thanks!

  165. Did you know these truths on CBD OIL and Full Spectrum CBD Hemp Oil? Cannabinoids are separated from hemp using supercritical CO2 extraction. Thanks to contemporary technology, the resulting option is tidy, without unneeded waxes and heavy metals, naturally present in the plant, and the drawn liquid has a common, oily consistency. CBD oil consists of cannabidiol as a base component and may include just trace quantities of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). Works as a memory enhancer, improving concentration and coordination of movements, removing swelling and persistent infections. It improves the conduction of stimuli in the course of autoimmune illness (multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic sclerosis). It is recommended by medical professionals and pharmacists as an antioxidant and substance that blocks the action of proinflammatory cytokines (proteins), e.g. in Crohn’s illness or ulcerative intestinal tract. RSO oil has a low CBD material, while high THC. Naturally, the key job of RSO is to cause a psychedelic impact, although it can likewise promote “sick” brain structures. It is worth understanding that supplements of this type is primarily used by people to whom basic therapy does not bring relief in illness. The synergistic (enhancing) action of CBD and THC relative to each other is used here. When utilized separately, both cannabinoids can do much more together than. In addition, they jointly promote the department of non-active afferent neuron, nourish the fatty envelope of the nerves, and prevent myelin inflammation that triggers loss of function in some autoimmune diseases. There are also stories where marijuana in its natural kind softened spasticity, reduced the frequency of convulsions and seizures, and reduced undesirable scrapie in Parkinson’s disease. This is where the idea of getting RSO, meant just for chronically ill individuals, come from . Both cannabis oil type CBD and RSO likewise consist of other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). The secret is not, however, that CBD typically has a structure broadened to include flavones, flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids, amino acids and omega acids. The distinction is primarily due to intentions assisting mankind to utilize one or the other item. CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather helpful blend of cannabinoids, developed to protect versus 21st century disease. It’s best to use all of these compounds together, as nature developed them and confined in cannabis inflorescences. Oil of marijuana in a kind of hobby APR contains small quantities of CBD, balanced by the existence of THC. – Modern scientific research reveals that CBD + THC cope with severe autoimmune illness, while CBC or CBG reveal very little activity in the presence of both compounds, simply like flavones, flavonoids or terpenes, therefore their content in the solution appears to be unnecessary. In addition, the cannabis stress from which THC and CBD are obtained include negligible amounts of other cannabinoids. Cannabis oil has currently marked a new age in which guy ceased to fear what is unknown, and began to discover what our ancestors had actually currently seen and utilize the substantial capacity, initially look, a little unusual relationships, associated generally with pathology. Medical cannabis, contrary to its name, does not suggest fermented female inflorescences and leaves consisting of psychedelic substances coiled in so-called “Joints”, however a beneficial oil without psychoactive THC. A basic individual, after taking doses of medical cannabis and attaining the appropriate state of cannabinoids in the blood, can enjoy increased immunity, lowered susceptibility to cancer, delayed aging and minimized risk of stroke or cardiovascular disease. CBD oil includes cannabidiol as a base ingredient and might contain only trace amounts of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). RSO oil has a low CBD material, while high THC. Both marijuana oil type CBD and RSO likewise contain other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather useful mix of cannabinoids, designed to secure versus 21st century illness. Oil of cannabis in a kind of pastime APR includes small quantities of CBD, balanced by the existence of THC.

  166. Did you understand these facts on CBD OIL and Full Spectrum CBD Hemp Oil? Cannabinoids are separated from hemp utilizing supercritical CO2 extraction. Thanks to modern-day innovation, the resulting option is tidy, free of heavy metals and unneeded waxes, naturally present in the plant, and the sucked liquid has a normal, oily consistency. CBD oil contains cannabidiol as a base component and may consist of only trace quantities of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). Functions as a memory enhancer, improving concentration and coordination of motions, removing inflammation and recurrent infections. It enhances the conduction of stimuli in the course of autoimmune diseases (multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic sclerosis). It is recommended by physicians and pharmacists as an antioxidant and substance that blocks the action of proinflammatory cytokines (proteins), e.g. in Crohn’s disease or ulcerative intestine. RSO oil has a low CBD content, while high THC. The synergistic (enhancing) action of CBD and THC relative to each other is used here. Both cannabinoids can do much more together than when used individually. Both marijuana oil type CBD and RSO likewise include other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). The secret is not, however, that CBD typically has actually a structure expanded to include flavones, flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids, amino acids and omega acids. The difference is mainly due to intentions guiding mankind to use one or the other item. CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather advantageous blend of cannabinoids, developed to secure versus 21st century illness. It’s finest to use all of these compounds together, as nature produced them and confined in cannabis inflorescences. Oil of cannabis in a kind of pastime APR consists of small quantities of CBD, stabilized by the presence of THC. – Modern clinical research study shows that CBD + THC cope with serious autoimmune diseases, while CBC or CBG show minimal activity in the existence of both substances, simply like flavonoids, terpenes or flavones, therefore their material in the solution appears to be unneeded. In addition, the marijuana strain from which THC and CBD are obtained contain minimal amounts of other cannabinoids. Cannabis oil has actually currently marked a new period in which male ceased to fear what is unidentified, and started to discover what our ancestors had already noticed and utilize the considerable capacity, initially glance, a little bizarre relationships, associated primarily with pathology. Medical cannabis, contrary to its name, does not mean fermented female inflorescences and leaves consisting of psychedelic substances coiled in so-called “Joints”, however a beneficial oil without psychedelic THC. A basic individual, after taking dosages of medical marijuana and achieving the appropriate state of cannabinoids in the blood, can delight in increased resistance, lowered susceptibility to cancer, postponed aging and decreased threat of stroke or cardiac arrest. CBD oil contains cannabidiol as a base ingredient and might consist of just trace amounts of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). RSO oil has a low CBD content, while high THC. Both cannabis oil type CBD and RSO also include other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). CBD medical cannabis oil is a rather advantageous blend of cannabinoids, developed to safeguard versus 21st century disease. Oil of cannabis in a kind of pastime APR contains little amounts of CBD, balanced by the presence of THC.

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  168. Did you understand these truths on CBD OIL and Full Spectrum CBD Hemp Oil? Cannabinoids are separated from hemp using supercritical CO2 extraction. Thanks to contemporary technology, the resulting service is tidy, without heavy metals and unnecessary waxes, naturally present in the plant, and the sucked liquid has a typical, oily consistency. CBD oil includes cannabidiol as a base active ingredient and might include only trace amounts of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). It is recommended by doctors and pharmacists as an antioxidant and substance that blocks the action of proinflammatory cytokines (proteins), e.g. in Crohn’s disease or ulcerative intestinal tract. RSO oil has a low CBD content, while high THC. The synergistic (enhancing) action of CBD and THC relative to each other is utilized here. Both cannabinoids can do much more together than when used individually. Both marijuana oil type CBD and RSO likewise contain other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). The secret is not, nevertheless, that CBD typically has actually a composition broadened to include flavones, flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids, amino acids and omega acids. The distinction is mostly due to motives directing humanity to utilize one or the other item. CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather useful mix of cannabinoids, created to secure against 21st century illness. It’s finest to use all of these compounds together, as nature produced them and confined in cannabis inflorescences. It ends up that cannabidiol improves the impacts of cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG), and flavones or flavonoids enhance the absorption of these compounds. Omega-6 and omega-3 extremely nourish the body and do not permit to alter, which accelerate the aging process of the organism and improve the advancement of cancer. Oil of cannabis in a type of hobby APR consists of percentages of CBD, balanced by the existence of THC. Makers focus on the synergistic result of one substance relative to the other, while abandoning the existence of CBC and CBG. Why such a choice? – Modern scientific research study reveals that CBD + THC manage severe autoimmune diseases, while CBC or CBG show very little activity in the existence of both substances, just like flavonoids, terpenes or flavones, for that reason their material in the service seems to be unnecessary. In addition, the marijuana strain from which THC and CBD are obtained contain minimal quantities of other cannabinoids. RSO oil is completely illegal in Poland, which is why it can not be obtained in any lawfully running shop on the marketplace. Of course, there are a number of amateur approaches for obtaining it, but it’s good to understand that compounds acquired synthetically in house labs are uncertain, untested, and the effect unknown. The solvent for the production of home RSO is generally gasoline, alcohol and even kerosene, which rather of curing, poison. Alcohols and their like impair cannabinoids, and so in reality, they don’t bring anything brand-new to the medical world. Cannabis oil has actually already marked a new era in which guy stopped to fear what is unidentified, and started to discover what our ancestors had already noticed and use the considerable capacity, in the beginning glimpse, a little unusual relationships, associated mainly with pathology. Medical cannabis, contrary to its name, does not indicate fermented female inflorescences and leaves consisting of psychoactive compounds coiled in so-called “Joints”, however an advantageous oil without psychedelic THC. A basic individual, after taking dosages of medical marijuana and accomplishing the suitable state of cannabinoids in the blood, can take pleasure in increased resistance, minimized susceptibility to cancer, postponed aging and lowered risk of stroke or heart attack. CBD oil consists of cannabidiol as a base active ingredient and might include only trace amounts of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). RSO oil has a low CBD material, while high THC. Both marijuana oil type CBD and RSO likewise include other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). CBD medical cannabis oil is a rather useful mix of cannabinoids, created to secure against 21st century disease. Oil of marijuana in a kind of hobby APR contains small quantities of CBD, stabilized by the existence of THC.

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  174. Did you know these facts on CBD OIL and Full Spectrum CBD Hemp Oil? Cannabinoids are isolated from hemp using supercritical CO2 extraction. Thanks to modern-day innovation, the resulting option is clean, free of heavy metals and unnecessary waxes, naturally present in the plant, and the drawn liquid has a normal, oily consistency. CBD oil includes cannabidiol as a base active ingredient and may consist of just trace amounts of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). It is advised by medical professionals and pharmacists as an antioxidant and compound that obstructs the action of proinflammatory cytokines (proteins), e.g. in Crohn’s disease or ulcerative intestinal tract. RSO oil has a low CBD material, while high THC. The synergistic (enhancing) action of CBD and THC relative to each other is utilized here. Both cannabinoids can do much more together than when utilized independently. Both marijuana oil type CBD and RSO likewise contain other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). The secret is not, nevertheless, that CBD frequently has actually a structure expanded to include flavones, flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids, amino acids and omega acids. The difference is mainly due to motives guiding humanity to utilize one or the other product. CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather beneficial blend of cannabinoids, developed to protect versus 21st century illness. It’s best to utilize all of these substances together, as nature created them and enclosed in cannabis inflorescences. It turns out that cannabidiol enhances the effects of cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG), and flavones or flavonoids enhance the absorption of these substances. Omega-6 and omega-3 highly nurture the body and do not enable to change, which speed up the aging process of the organism and boost the development of cancer. Oil of cannabis in a type of pastime APR consists of percentages of CBD, balanced by the existence of THC. Makers focus on the synergistic result of one substance relative to the other, while deserting the existence of CBC and CBG. Why such a choice? – Modern scientific research reveals that CBD + THC handle major autoimmune illness, while CBC or CBG reveal very little activity in the existence of both compounds, similar to terpenes, flavonoids or flavones, for that reason their material in the service seems to be unnecessary. In addition, the marijuana stress from which THC and CBD are derived contain negligible quantities of other cannabinoids. RSO oil is completely illegal in Poland, which is why it can not be obtained in any lawfully running store on the market. Naturally, there are a variety of amateur methods for obtaining it, however it’s great to understand that compounds gotten synthetically in home laboratories doubt, untried, and the impact unknown. The solvent for the production of home RSO is typically fuel, alcohol and even kerosene, which instead of curing, toxin. Alcohols and their like impair cannabinoids, therefore in reality, they don’t bring anything brand-new to the medical world. Cannabis oil has actually already marked a brand-new era in which man ceased to fear what is unknown, and started to discover what our ancestors had currently seen and use the considerable capacity, at first look, a little strange relationships, associated mainly with pathology. Medical marijuana, contrary to its name, does not imply fermented female inflorescences and leaves containing psychoactive substances coiled in so-called “Joints”, however an advantageous oil without psychedelic THC. A standard individual, after taking dosages of medical marijuana and attaining the appropriate state of cannabinoids in the blood, can delight in increased resistance, reduced vulnerability to cancer, delayed aging and lowered threat of stroke or heart attack. CBD oil consists of cannabidiol as a base active ingredient and may include just trace amounts of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). RSO oil has a low CBD material, while high THC. Both cannabis oil type CBD and RSO also include other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather useful blend of cannabinoids, developed to safeguard versus 21st century illness. Oil of cannabis in a kind of pastime APR contains small amounts of CBD, balanced by the existence of THC.

  175. Did you know these truths on CBD OIL and Full Spectrum CBD Hemp Oil? Cannabinoids are isolated from hemp utilizing supercritical CO2 extraction. Thanks to modern innovation, the resulting solution is clean, devoid of unnecessary waxes and heavy metals, naturally present in the plant, and the drawn liquid has a normal, oily consistency. CBD oil contains cannabidiol as a base component and may contain only trace amounts of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). Functions as a memory enhancer, improving concentration and coordination of movements, removing inflammation and frequent infections. It improves the conduction of stimuli in the course of autoimmune diseases (numerous sclerosis, amyotrophic sclerosis). It is recommended by doctors and pharmacists as an antioxidant and substance that blocks the action of proinflammatory cytokines (proteins), e.g. in Crohn’s disease or ulcerative intestine. RSO oil has a low CBD material, while high THC. Naturally, the essential task of RSO is to cause a psychedelic impact, although it can likewise promote “sick” brain structures. It is worth knowing that supplementation of this type is primarily used by individuals to whom standard treatment does not bring relief in disease. The synergistic (enhancing) action of CBD and THC relative to each other is used here. Both cannabinoids can do much more together than when utilized independently. In addition, they jointly stimulate the department of inactive afferent neuron, nurture the fatty envelope of the nerves, and avoid myelin inflammation that causes loss of function in some autoimmune illness. There are also stories where cannabis in its natural kind softened spasticity, lowered the frequency of seizures and convulsions, and suppressed undesirable scrapie in Parkinson’s illness. This is where the idea of receiving RSO, meant only for chronically ill people, originated . Both marijuana oil type CBD and RSO likewise consist of other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). The trick is not, however, that CBD often has a structure broadened to include flavones, flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids, amino acids and omega acids. The difference is mostly due to intentions directing mankind to use one or the other product. CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather helpful mix of cannabinoids, created to protect against 21st century illness. It’s finest to utilize all of these compounds together, as nature produced them and confined in cannabis inflorescences. Oil of cannabis in a type of hobby APR contains little quantities of CBD, balanced by the existence of THC. Makers concentrate on the synergistic effect of one substance relative to the other, while abandoning the presence of CBC and CBG. Why such a decision? – Modern scientific research shows that CBD + THC cope with serious autoimmune diseases, while CBC or CBG show minimal activity in the existence of both substances, just like flavonoids, terpenes or flavones, therefore their material in the service appears to be unneeded. In addition, the marijuana pressure from which THC and CBD are obtained consist of negligible quantities of other cannabinoids. RSO oil is totally illegal in Poland, which is why it can not be obtained in any lawfully operating shop on the market. Obviously, there are a number of amateur techniques for getting it, however it’s good to know that substances acquired artificially in house laboratories are unpredictable, untried, and the effect unknown. The solvent for the production of family RSO is usually gas, alcohol and even kerosene, which rather of curing, toxin. Alcohols and their like impair cannabinoids, and so in reality, they don’t bring anything new to the medical world. Marijuana oil has actually already marked a brand-new period in which man ceased to fear what is unidentified, and began to uncover what our forefathers had already noticed and utilize the substantial potential, initially look, a little unusual relationships, associated primarily with pathology. Medical marijuana, contrary to its name, does not mean fermented female inflorescences and leaves containing psychoactive compounds coiled in so-called “Joints”, but an useful oil without psychoactive THC. A standard individual, after taking doses of medicinal cannabis and accomplishing the suitable state of cannabinoids in the blood, can delight in increased immunity, lowered vulnerability to cancer, postponed aging and lowered risk of stroke or heart attack. CBD oil consists of cannabidiol as a base ingredient and may consist of only trace quantities of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). RSO oil has a low CBD content, while high THC. Both marijuana oil type CBD and RSO also consist of other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). CBD medical cannabis oil is a rather useful mix of cannabinoids, designed to protect against 21st century illness. Oil of marijuana in a kind of pastime APR includes little amounts of CBD, balanced by the existence of THC.

  176. Did you understand these truths on CBD OIL and Full Spectrum CBD Hemp Oil? Cannabinoids are isolated from hemp using supercritical CO2 extraction. Thanks to modern innovation, the resulting solution is clean, devoid of heavy metals and unneeded waxes, naturally present in the plant, and the sucked liquid has a typical, oily consistency. CBD oil includes cannabidiol as a base ingredient and might contain just trace amounts of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). Functions as a memory enhancer, improving concentration and coordination of movements, removing swelling and persistent infections. It enhances the conduction of stimuli in the course of autoimmune illness (numerous sclerosis, amyotrophic sclerosis). It is advised by medical professionals and pharmacists as an antioxidant and compound that blocks the action of proinflammatory cytokines (proteins), e.g. in Crohn’s illness or ulcerative intestinal tract. RSO oil has a low CBD material, while high THC. Naturally, the crucial task of RSO is to trigger a psychedelic impact, although it can likewise promote “sick” brain structures. It is worth knowing that supplementation of this type is mainly utilized by individuals to whom basic therapy does not bring relief in disease. The synergistic (enhancing) action of CBD and THC relative to each other is utilized here. Both cannabinoids can do far more together than when utilized individually. In addition, they jointly stimulate the division of non-active afferent neuron, nurture the fatty envelope of the nerves, and prevent myelin inflammation that triggers loss of function in some autoimmune diseases. There are also stories where marijuana in its natural kind softened spasticity, minimized the frequency of convulsions and seizures, and reduced undesirable scrapie in Parkinson’s illness. This is where the concept of getting RSO, planned only for chronically ill people, stemmed . Both cannabis oil type CBD and RSO also include other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). The secret is not, however, that CBD often has actually a composition broadened to include flavones, flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids, amino acids and omega acids. The distinction is mainly due to motives directing mankind to utilize one or the other product. CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather useful mix of cannabinoids, created to protect versus 21st century illness. It’s finest to use all of these substances together, as nature created them and enclosed in cannabis inflorescences. It turns out that cannabidiol enhances the impacts of cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG), and flavonoids or flavones improve the absorption of these substances. Omega-6 and omega-3 extremely nourish the body and do not permit to change, which speed up the aging process of the organism and improve the development of cancer. Oil of cannabis in a sort of hobby APR contains little amounts of CBD, stabilized by the existence of THC. Makers concentrate on the synergistic effect of one substance relative to the other, while abandoning the presence of CBC and CBG. Why such a choice? – Modern clinical research reveals that CBD + THC handle major autoimmune illness, while CBC or CBG show very little activity in the presence of both substances, much like terpenes, flavonoids or flavones, for that reason their material in the option appears to be unneeded. In addition, the cannabis stress from which THC and CBD are derived include minimal quantities of other cannabinoids. RSO oil is totally prohibited in Poland, which is why it can not be gotten in any lawfully running store on the marketplace. Obviously, there are a number of amateur techniques for obtaining it, but it’s good to know that substances obtained synthetically in house labs doubt, untested, and the effect unknown. The solvent for the production of family RSO is normally gasoline, alcohol and even kerosene, which instead of treating, toxin. Alcohols and their like hinder cannabinoids, and so in truth, they do not bring anything new to the medical world. Cannabis oil has actually already marked a new period in which male stopped to fear what is unknown, and began to discover what our forefathers had actually currently seen and use the significant potential, in the beginning glance, a little unusual relationships, associated mainly with pathology. Medical marijuana, contrary to its name, does not indicate fermented female inflorescences and leaves including psychoactive compounds coiled in so-called “Joints”, however a helpful oil without psychedelic THC. A standard individual, after taking doses of medicinal cannabis and achieving the proper state of cannabinoids in the blood, can delight in increased immunity, reduced susceptibility to cancer, delayed aging and minimized danger of stroke or cardiac arrest. CBD oil includes cannabidiol as a base component and may contain only trace quantities of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). RSO oil has a low CBD content, while high THC. Both marijuana oil type CBD and RSO also consist of other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). CBD medical cannabis oil is a rather useful mix of cannabinoids, created to protect against 21st century illness. Oil of cannabis in a kind of hobby APR includes little amounts of CBD, stabilized by the presence of THC.

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  181. Did you understand these facts on CBD OIL and Full Spectrum CBD Hemp Oil? Cannabinoids are separated from hemp utilizing supercritical CO2 extraction. Thanks to contemporary innovation, the resulting service is tidy, without heavy metals and unnecessary waxes, naturally present in the plant, and the drawn liquid has a normal, oily consistency. CBD oil includes cannabidiol as a base ingredient and may include just trace amounts of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). Functions as a memory enhancer, enhancing concentration and coordination of motions, eliminating inflammation and recurrent infections. It improves the conduction of stimuli in the course of autoimmune illness (several sclerosis, amyotrophic sclerosis). It is advised by doctors and pharmacists as an antioxidant and substance that obstructs the action of proinflammatory cytokines (proteins), e.g. in Crohn’s illness or ulcerative intestine. RSO oil has a low CBD material, while high THC. Of course, the key job of RSO is to cause a psychedelic impact, although it can also stimulate “ill” brain structures. It is worth knowing that supplementation of this type is primarily used by individuals to whom standard treatment does not bring relief in health problem. The synergistic (enhancing) action of CBD and THC relative to each other is used here. When utilized individually, both cannabinoids can do much more together than. In addition, they jointly stimulate the department of non-active nerve cells, nourish the fatty envelope of the nerves, and avoid myelin swelling that causes loss of function in some autoimmune illness. There are likewise stories where cannabis in its natural form softened spasticity, reduced the frequency of convulsions and seizures, and reduced undesirable scrapie in Parkinson’s illness. This is where the idea of receiving RSO, intended only for chronically ill people, stemmed . Both marijuana oil type CBD and RSO likewise contain other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). The trick is not, nevertheless, that CBD frequently has a structure broadened to include flavones, flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids, amino acids and omega acids. The difference is mostly due to motives guiding humanity to use one or the other item. CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather beneficial blend of cannabinoids, designed to secure against 21st century illness. It’s best to use all of these substances together, as nature created them and enclosed in cannabis inflorescences. It turns out that cannabidiol improves the results of cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG), and flavonoids or flavones improve the absorption of these substances. Omega-6 and omega-3 extremely nourish the body and do not allow to alter, which accelerate the aging process of the organism and boost the development of cancer. Oil of marijuana in a kind of hobby APR includes small quantities of CBD, stabilized by the presence of THC. – Modern clinical research study reveals that CBD + THC cope with major autoimmune illness, while CBC or CBG reveal minimal activity in the presence of both compounds, simply like flavones, terpenes or flavonoids, therefore their content in the service seems to be unnecessary. In addition, the marijuana pressure from which THC and CBD are derived include minimal quantities of other cannabinoids. Cannabis oil has currently marked a new period in which man ceased to fear what is unknown, and began to rediscover what our ancestors had actually already discovered and utilize the considerable potential, in the beginning look, a little bizarre relationships, associated generally with pathology. Medical marijuana, contrary to its name, does not imply fermented female inflorescences and leaves including psychoactive substances coiled in so-called “Joints”, but an advantageous oil without psychedelic THC. A basic person, after taking dosages of medical cannabis and attaining the proper state of cannabinoids in the blood, can enjoy increased immunity, lowered susceptibility to cancer, delayed aging and minimized danger of stroke or cardiovascular disease. CBD oil contains cannabidiol as a base active ingredient and might include only trace quantities of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). RSO oil has a low CBD content, while high THC. Both cannabis oil type CBD and RSO likewise consist of other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather beneficial blend of cannabinoids, designed to safeguard versus 21st century illness. Oil of marijuana in a kind of pastime APR includes small amounts of CBD, stabilized by the existence of THC.

  182. Did you understand these realities on CBD OIL and Full Spectrum CBD Hemp Oil? Cannabinoids are separated from hemp utilizing supercritical CO2 extraction. Thanks to contemporary innovation, the resulting solution is tidy, free of unnecessary waxes and heavy metals, naturally present in the plant, and the drawn liquid has a normal, oily consistency. CBD oil includes cannabidiol as a base component and may include only trace quantities of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). It is recommended by doctors and pharmacists as an antioxidant and compound that obstructs the action of proinflammatory cytokines (proteins), e.g. in Crohn’s illness or ulcerative intestinal tract. RSO oil has a low CBD content, while high THC. Of course, the key job of RSO is to cause a psychoactive result, although it can likewise promote “ill” brain structures. It is worth understanding that supplementation of this type is primarily used by people to whom basic therapy does not bring relief in health problem. The synergistic (enhancing) action of CBD and THC relative to each other is utilized here. Both cannabinoids can do a lot more together than when used separately. In addition, they collectively stimulate the department of inactive nerve cells, nourish the fatty envelope of the nerves, and prevent myelin swelling that triggers loss of function in some autoimmune illness. There are also stories where marijuana in its natural type softened spasticity, minimized the frequency of convulsions and seizures, and reduced unpleasant scrapie in Parkinson’s disease. This is where the idea of getting RSO, meant only for chronically ill people, originated . Both cannabis oil type CBD and RSO likewise consist of other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). The trick is not, nevertheless, that CBD often has a structure broadened to include flavones, flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids, amino acids and omega acids. The distinction is primarily due to motives assisting humankind to utilize one or the other product. CBD medical cannabis oil is a rather useful blend of cannabinoids, developed to protect against 21st century disease. It’s finest to use all of these compounds together, as nature created them and confined in cannabis inflorescences. It ends up that cannabidiol boosts the results of cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG), and flavonoids or flavones enhance the absorption of these compounds. Omega-6 and omega-3 highly nourish the body and do not permit to change, which accelerate the aging procedure of the organism and improve the development of cancer. Oil of marijuana in a kind of hobby APR consists of small quantities of CBD, balanced by the presence of THC. – Modern scientific research shows that CBD + THC cope with major autoimmune diseases, while CBC or CBG reveal minimal activity in the presence of both substances, just like flavones, flavonoids or terpenes, for that reason their material in the option appears to be unnecessary. In addition, the marijuana pressure from which THC and CBD are obtained include negligible quantities of other cannabinoids. Cannabis oil has currently marked a brand-new era in which man ceased to fear what is unknown, and started to uncover what our ancestors had actually already discovered and use the significant potential, in the beginning glimpse, a little strange relationships, associated mainly with pathology. Medical marijuana, contrary to its name, does not indicate fermented female inflorescences and leaves containing psychoactive compounds coiled in so-called “Joints”, but an advantageous oil without psychedelic THC. A basic person, after taking dosages of medical marijuana and accomplishing the appropriate state of cannabinoids in the blood, can enjoy increased immunity, lowered susceptibility to cancer, delayed aging and reduced risk of stroke or cardiac arrest. CBD oil consists of cannabidiol as a base ingredient and might include only trace amounts of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). RSO oil has a low CBD content, while high THC. Both marijuana oil type CBD and RSO also include other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). CBD medical cannabis oil is a rather beneficial blend of cannabinoids, created to safeguard versus 21st century disease. Oil of marijuana in a kind of pastime APR consists of little amounts of CBD, balanced by the presence of THC.

  183. Did you know these facts on CBD OIL and Full Spectrum CBD Hemp Oil? Cannabinoids are separated from hemp utilizing supercritical CO2 extraction. Thanks to contemporary technology, the resulting service is clean, without heavy metals and unnecessary waxes, naturally present in the plant, and the sucked liquid has a typical, oily consistency. CBD oil consists of cannabidiol as a base component and may contain only trace amounts of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). Works as a memory enhancer, enhancing concentration and coordination of motions, removing swelling and persistent infections. It improves the conduction of stimuli in the course of autoimmune illness (numerous sclerosis, amyotrophic sclerosis). It is suggested by medical professionals and pharmacists as an antioxidant and substance that obstructs the action of proinflammatory cytokines (proteins), e.g. in Crohn’s illness or ulcerative intestinal tract. RSO oil has a low CBD content, while high THC. Naturally, the essential task of RSO is to cause a psychoactive impact, although it can likewise stimulate “sick” brain structures. It is worth knowing that supplements of this type is primarily utilized by individuals to whom standard therapy does not bring relief in illness. The synergistic (enhancing) action of CBD and THC relative to each other is used here. When utilized individually, both cannabinoids can do much more together than. In addition, they collectively promote the department of inactive afferent neuron, nourish the fatty envelope of the nerves, and prevent myelin swelling that triggers loss of function in some autoimmune diseases. There are likewise stories where cannabis in its natural type softened spasticity, lowered the frequency of seizures and convulsions, and suppressed undesirable scrapie in Parkinson’s disease. This is where the idea of getting RSO, intended only for chronically ill individuals, stemmed . Both marijuana oil type CBD and RSO likewise include other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). The secret is not, however, that CBD frequently has a composition broadened to consist of flavones, flavonoids, terpenes, terpenoids, amino acids and omega acids. The difference is primarily due to intentions assisting humanity to utilize one or the other product. CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather helpful blend of cannabinoids, created to safeguard against 21st century illness. It’s best to use all of these substances together, as nature created them and confined in cannabis inflorescences. It ends up that cannabidiol boosts the effects of cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG), and flavones or flavonoids enhance the absorption of these compounds. Omega-6 and omega-3 extremely nourish the body and do not allow to alter, which accelerate the aging procedure of the organism and boost the development of cancer. Oil of cannabis in a type of hobby APR contains percentages of CBD, stabilized by the existence of THC. Makers focus on the synergistic effect of one compound relative to the other, while abandoning the presence of CBC and CBG. Why such a choice? – Modern clinical research study reveals that CBD + THC manage severe autoimmune diseases, while CBC or CBG show minimal activity in the presence of both compounds, similar to terpenes, flavonoids or flavones, therefore their material in the solution appears to be unnecessary. In addition, the marijuana stress from which THC and CBD are obtained consist of minimal amounts of other cannabinoids. RSO oil is totally illegal in Poland, which is why it can not be gotten in any lawfully running shop on the market. Of course, there are a variety of amateur approaches for getting it, but it’s great to know that substances gotten synthetically in house labs doubt, untried, and the result unknown. The solvent for the production of household RSO is typically fuel, alcohol and even kerosene, which rather of curing, toxin. Alcohols and their like impair cannabinoids, and so in truth, they don’t bring anything brand-new to the medical world. Marijuana oil has already marked a new era in which man stopped to fear what is unidentified, and began to uncover what our forefathers had already noticed and utilize the considerable capacity, at first glimpse, a little unusual relationships, associated primarily with pathology. Medical marijuana, contrary to its name, does not mean fermented female inflorescences and leaves consisting of psychoactive substances coiled in so-called “Joints”, but an useful oil without psychoactive THC. A basic individual, after taking doses of medicinal marijuana and attaining the proper state of cannabinoids in the blood, can delight in increased resistance, lowered vulnerability to cancer, postponed aging and minimized risk of stroke or cardiovascular disease. CBD oil consists of cannabidiol as a base ingredient and may consist of only trace quantities of tetrahydroxycannabidiol (THC). RSO oil has a low CBD content, while high THC. Both marijuana oil type CBD and RSO also include other cannabinoids, such as cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). CBD medical marijuana oil is a rather beneficial blend of cannabinoids, created to protect versus 21st century illness. Oil of marijuana in a kind of pastime APR contains little amounts of CBD, balanced by the existence of THC.

  184. Hey would you mind letting me know which hosting company you’re working with? I’ve loaded your blog in 3 completely different web browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot quicker then most. Can you suggest a good hosting provider at a reasonable price? Many thanks, I appreciate it!

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