Scuderia FerrariÂ S.p.A.Â (Italian:Â [skudeËˆriËa ferËˆraËri]) is the racing division of luxury ItalianÂ auto manufacturerÂ FerrariÂ and the racing team that competes inÂ Formula OneÂ racing. The team is also nicknamed “The Prancing Horse”, with reference to their logo. It is the oldest surviving andÂ most successful Formula One team, having competed in every world championship since theÂ 1950 Formula One season.Â The team was founded byÂ Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced byÂ Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. Among its important achievements outside Formula One are winning theÂ World Sportscar Championship,Â 24 Hours of Le Mans,Â 24 Hours of Spa,Â 24 Hours of Daytona,Â 12 Hours of Sebring,Â Bathurst 12 Hour, races forÂ Grand tourerÂ cars and racing on road courses of theÂ Targa Florio, theÂ Mille MigliaÂ and theÂ Carrera Panamericana.
As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16Â Constructors’ Championships, the last of which was won in 2008.Â Alberto Ascari,Â Juan Manuel Fangio,Â Mike Hawthorn,Â Phil Hill,Â John Surtees,Â Niki Lauda,Â Jody Scheckter,Â Michael SchumacherÂ andÂ Kimi RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nenÂ have won a record 15Â Drivers’ ChampionshipsÂ for the team.Â Since RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen’s title inÂ 2007Â the team narrowly lost out on theÂ 2008Â drivers’ title withÂ Felipe MassaÂ and theÂ 2010Â andÂ 2012Â drivers’ titles withÂ Fernando Alonso.
Michael Schumacher is the team’s most successful driver. Joining the team inÂ 1996Â and departing inÂ 2006Â he won five drivers’ titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively betweenÂ 2000Â andÂ 2004, and the team won consecutive constructors’ title fromÂ 1999Â until the end of 2004; this was the team’s most successful period.
TheÂ Scuderia FerrariÂ team was founded byÂ Enzo FerrariÂ on 16 November 1929 and became the racing team ofÂ Alfa Romeo, building and racing Alfa Romeo cars. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to re-enter racing under its own name, establishing theÂ Alfa CorseÂ organisation, which absorbed what had been Scuderia Ferrari.Â Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, for a period of four years.
In 1939, Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, theÂ Tipo 815Â (eight cylinders, 1.5Â L displacement).Â The 815s, designed byÂ Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars.Â World War IIÂ put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work.
After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, which would design and build its own cars.
The team was initially based inÂ ModenaÂ from its pre-war founding until 1943, when Enzo Ferrari moved the team to a new factory inÂ MaranelloÂ in 1943,Â and both Scuderia Ferrari and Ferrari’s roadcar factory remain at Maranello to this day. The team owns and operates a test track on the same site, theÂ Fiorano CircuitÂ built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The prancing horse was the symbol on ItalianÂ World War IÂ aceÂ Francesco Baracca‘s fighter plane, and became the logo of Ferrari after the fallen ace’s parents, close acquaintances of Enzo Ferrari, suggested that Ferrari use the symbol as the logo of theÂ Scuderia, telling him it would ‘bring him good luck’.
Grand Prix racing and Formula One
In 1950, theÂ Formula One World ChampionshipÂ was established, and Scuderia Ferrari entered in this first season. It is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day.
In fact the Ferrari team missed the first race of the championship, theÂ 1950 British Grand Prix, due to a dispute about the ‘start money’ paid to entrants,Â and the team debuted in theÂ 1950 Monaco Grand PrixÂ with theÂ 125 F1, sporting a supercharged version of the 125 V12, and three experienced and successful drivers,Â Alberto Ascari,Â Raymond SommerÂ andÂ Gigi Villoresi.Â The company later switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for theÂ 275, 340, and 375 F1Â cars. The Alfa Romeo team dominated theÂ 1950 Formula One season, winning all eleven events it entered (six World Championship events and five non-championship races), but Ferrari broke their streak in 1951 when rotund driverÂ JosÃ© FroilÃ¡n GonzÃ¡lezÂ took first place at theÂ 1951 British Grand Prix.
After theÂ 1951 Formula One seasonÂ the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt theÂ Formula TwoÂ regulationsÂ due to the lack of suitable F1 cars. Ferrari entered the 2.0Â L 4-cylÂ Ferrari Tipo 500, which went on to win almost every race in which it competed in theÂ 1952 Formula One seasonÂ with drivers Ascari,Â Giuseppe Farina, andÂ Piero Taruffi; Ascari took the World Championship after winning six consecutive races. In theÂ 1953 Formula One season, Ascari won only five races but another world title; at the end of that season,Â Juan Manuel FangioÂ beat the Ferraris in aÂ MaseratiÂ for the first time.
TheÂ 1954 Formula One seasonÂ brought new rules for 2.5Â L engines; Ferrari’s new car, designated theÂ Ferrari Tipo 625, could barely compete against Fangio with the Maserati and then theÂ Mercedes-Benz W196Â which appeared in July. Ferrari had only two wins, GonzÃ¡lez at theÂ 1954 British Grand PrixÂ andÂ Mike HawthornÂ at theÂ 1954 Spanish Grand Prix. In theÂ 1955 Formula One seasonÂ Ferrari did no better, winning only theÂ 1955 Monaco Grand PrixÂ with driverÂ Maurice Trintignant. Late in the tragic 1955 season the Ferrari team purchased theÂ LanciaÂ team’s D50 chassis after they had retired following Ascari’s death; Fangio,Â Peter Collins, andÂ Eugenio CastellottiÂ raced the D50s successfully in theÂ 1956 Formula One season: Collins two races, Fangio won three races and the championship.
In theÂ 1957 Formula One seasonÂ Fangio returned to Maserati. Ferrari, still using its ageing Lancias, failed to win a race. DriversÂ Luigi MussoÂ and the MarquisÂ Alfonso de PortagoÂ joined Castellotti; Castellotti died while testing and Portago crashed into a crowd at the Mille Miglia, killing twelve and causing Ferrari to be charged with manslaughter.
In theÂ 1958 Formula One season, aÂ Constructors’ ChampionshipÂ was introduced, and won byÂ Vanwall.Â Carlo ChitiÂ designed an entirely new car for Ferrari: theÂ Ferrari 246 F1, with a V6 engine named after Enzo Ferrari’s recently deceased son. The team retained drivers Collins, Hawthorn, and Musso, but Musso died at theÂ 1958 French Grand PrixÂ and Collins died at theÂ 1958 German Grand Prix; Hawthorn won the World Championship and announced his retirement, and died months later in a road accident.
Ferrari hired five new drivers,Â Tony Brooks,Â Jean Behra,Â Phil Hill,Â Dan Gurney, and occasionallyÂ Cliff Allison, for theÂ 1959 Formula One season. The team did not get along well; Behra was fired after punching team manager Romolo Tavoni. Brooks was competitive until the end of the season, but in the end he narrowly lost the championship toÂ Jack BrabhamÂ with the rear-enginedÂ Cooper.
TheÂ 1960 Formula One seasonÂ proved little better than 1959. Ferrari kept drivers Hill, Allison andÂ Wolfgang von TripsÂ and addedÂ Willy MairesseÂ to drive the dated front-engined 246s andÂ Richie Ginther, who drove Ferrari’s first rear-engined car. Allison was severely injured in testing and Hill gave the team its lone win by heading a hollow podium sweep at Monza after top British teams, with the championship already decided, boycotted Italian organizers’ decision to contest the race on a high-speed circuit which combined Monza’s high-banked oval with the normal road course.
In theÂ 1961 Formula One season, with new rules for 1500Â cc, the team kept Hill, von Trips and Ginther, and dÃ©buted another Chiti-designed car, theÂ Ferrari 156Â based on the Formula 2 car of 1960, which was dominant throughout the season. Ferrari drivers Hill and Von Trips competed for the championship.Â Giancarlo BaghettiÂ joined in midseason and became the first driver to win on his debut race (theÂ 1961 French Grand Prix). However, at the end of the season, von Trips crashed at theÂ 1961 Italian Grand PrixÂ and was killed, together with over a dozen spectators. Hill won the championship.
At the end of the 1961 season, in what is called “the walk-out”, car designer Carlo Chiti and team manager Romolo Tavoni left to set up their own team,Â ATS. Ferrari promotedÂ Mauro ForghieriÂ to racing director and Eugenio Dragoni to team manager.
For theÂ 1962 Formula One season, Hill and Baghetti stayed on with rookiesÂ Ricardo RodrÃguezÂ andÂ Lorenzo Bandini.Â Richie GintherÂ had left for BRM, leaving a big gap in the development of new models. The somewhat volatileÂ Willy MairesseÂ took his place.Â The team used the 1961 cars for a second year while Forghieri worked on a new design; the team won no race. After a prolonged metal workers’ strike in Italy Ferrari missed two races. This, combined with the betrayal of the 1961 walk-out and various troubles arising from Enzo’s refusal to accompany the team to the races (having his wife stand in for him instead) led to Enzo withdrawing from the last two races of the year. The drivers were free to drive for anyone, as long as it did not contradict the existing sponsor contracts withÂ Dunlop,Â Shell,Â Marchal, andÂ Ferodo.
There had been talk of a Gilera-Ferrari in late 1962, with technical drawings released but no car ever seen, using a transversely mounted eight-cylinder engine based on twoÂ GileraÂ four-cylinder motorcycle blocks combined.Â This came to naught, however, and Ferrari ran smaller lighter 156 cars for theÂ 1963 Formula One season. This time the team depended on drivers Bandini,Â John Surtees, Willy Mairesse andÂ Ludovico Scarfiotti. Surtees won theÂ 1963 German Grand Prix, at which Mairesse crashed heavily, rendering him unable to drive again.
The new 158 model was at last finished in late 1963 and developed into raceworthiness for theÂ 1964 Formula One season, featuring an eight-cylinder engine designed by Angelo Bellei. Surtees and Bandini were joined by young MexicanÂ Pedro RodrÃguez, brother of Ricardo (who had been killed at the end of 1962), to drive the new cars. Surtees won two races and Bandini one; the Ferrari was slower thanÂ Jim Clark‘sÂ LotusÂ but its vastly superior reliability gave Surtees the championship and Bandini fourth place. In the last two races in North America, the Ferrari’s were entered by private teamÂ NARTÂ and painted in the US colour-scheme of blue and white, as Enzo was protesting against the Italian sporting authority.
TheÂ 1965 Formula One seasonÂ was the last year of the 1.5Â L formula, so Ferrari opted to use the same V8 engine another year together with a new flat-12 which had debuted at the end of 1964; they won no races as Clark dominated in his now more reliable Lotus. Surtees and Bandini stayed on as drivers, with odd races for RodrÃguez, Vaccarella andÂ Bob Bondurant.
For theÂ 1966 Formula One seasonÂ with new rules, theÂ Ferrari 312Â of Surtees consisted of a 3.0Â L version of the 3.3Â L V12 which they had previously used inÂ Ferrari PÂ sports car racers, mounted in the back of a rather heavy F1 chassis. Bandini drove aÂ Tasman SeriesÂ 2.4Â L V6 car early in the season. Surtees won one race, theÂ 1966 Belgian Grand Prix, but departed after a row with manager Eugenio Dragoni; he was replaced byÂ Mike Parkes. Scarfiotti also won a race, theÂ 1966 Italian Grand PrixÂ atÂ Monza, with an improved 36-valve engine.
In theÂ 1967 Formula One season, the team fired Dragoni and replaced him with Franco Lini;Â Chris AmonÂ partnered Bandini to drive a somewhat improved version of the 1966 car. At theÂ 1967 Monaco Grand PrixÂ Bandini crashed and suffered heavy injuries when he was trapped under his burning car; several days later he succumbed to his injuries. Ferrari kept Mike Parkes and Scarfiotti, but Parkes suffered career-ending injuries weeks later at theÂ 1967 Belgian Grand PrixÂ and Scarfiotti temporarily retired from racing after witnessing his crash.
TheÂ 1968 Formula One seasonÂ was better;Â Jacky IckxÂ drove with one win in France and several good positions, which gave him a chance at the World Championship until a practise crash in Canada, and Amon led several races but won none. At the end of the season, manager Franco Lini quit and Ickx went to theÂ BrabhamÂ team. During the summer of 1968, Ferrari worked out a deal to sell his road car business toÂ FiatÂ for $11Â million; the transaction took place in early 1969, leaving 50% of the business still under the control of Ferrari himself.
During theÂ 1969 Formula One season, Enzo Ferrari set about wisely spending his new-found wealth to revive his struggling team; though Ferrari did compete in Formula One in 1969, it was something of a throwaway season while the team was restructured. Amon continued to drive an older model andÂ Pedro RodrÃguezÂ replaced Ickx; at the end of the year Amon left the team.
InÂ 1970, a new car and engine was produced for that season, theÂ 312B. It had an all-new flat-12 engine, which was to be the engine used by the team for the next 10 seasons. Jacky Ickx rejoined the team and won theÂ Austrian Grand Prix, theÂ Canadian Grand PrixÂ and theÂ Mexican Grand PrixÂ to become second in the Drivers’ Championship.Â Clay RegazzoniÂ made his debut that season and won theÂ Italian Grand Prix, finishing third in the standings. Ferrari driver Pedro RodrÃguez was killed in an Interserie sports car race at Norisring in Nuremberg, Germany, on 11 July 1971, at the wheel of a Ferrari 512M.
After three poor years, including a disastrous 1973 season which saw Ferrari failing to attend two racesÂ â€“ theÂ DutchÂ andÂ GermanÂ Grands PrixÂ â€“ for the first time since the team had started racing in Formula One, Ferrari signedÂ Niki LaudaÂ in 1974, and made the momentous decision to pull out of sportscar racing to concentrate upon F1. The same yearÂ Luca di MontezemoloÂ was appointed Team Principal. Ferrari won theÂ Spanish Grand Prix, theÂ Dutch Grand PrixÂ and theÂ German Grand Prix, but Regazzoni lost the World Championship toÂ Emerson FittipaldiÂ at the final race of the season, theÂ United States Grand Prix.
The newÂ Ferrari 312T, developed fully with Lauda and Regazzoni and designed byÂ Mauro Forghieri, was introduced in 1975, and brought the team back to winning ways, Lauda won five races and took the drivers’ crown, and Ferrari won the Constructors’ Championship.
In 1976 Lauda was comfortably leading the championship when he crashed at theÂ German Grand Prix, seriously injuring himself.Â Carlos ReutemannÂ was hired as a replacement, and Ferrari fielded three cars in theÂ 1976 Italian Grand PrixÂ when Lauda returned unexpectedly soon (only six weeks after his accident). Lauda scored points twice in the races following his severe crash, but voluntarily withdrew from the season-ending Grand Prix at Fuji after two laps because of heavy rain, andÂ James HuntÂ won the drivers’ title by a single point, but Ferrari won the constructors’ title for the second year in a row.
In 1977 Lauda, having come back from his near fatal crash the previous year, took the title again for Ferrari (and the team won the Constructors’ Championship), overcoming his more fancied, and favoured, teammate Reutemann. His relations with the team, especially Forghieri, continued to deteriorate, and he decided finally to leave forÂ BrabhamÂ at the end of the season.
Jody ScheckterÂ replacing the Lotus bound Argentinian in 1979, took the title, supported by Gilles Villeneuve (who dutifully followed the South African home at Monza), and won the last World Drivers’ Championship in a Ferrari untilÂ Michael SchumacherÂ twenty one years later. The car was a compromise ground effect design due to the configuration of the Ferrari wide angle flat-12, which was overtaken in due course by the extremely successfulÂ Williams FW07, but not before racking up the necessary points to take both titles that year.
Ferrari andÂ Jody Scheckter‘sÂ 1980Â title defence was unsuccessful, as the team’s rivals made up ground at the expense of the reigning champions. The team scored a meagre total of eight points all season, and Scheckter elected to retire at its conclusion. For theÂ 1981Â season, Ferrari signedÂ Didier PironiÂ to partnerÂ Gilles VilleneuveÂ and also introduced its ownÂ turbo-chargedÂ engine, which provided more power in a more compact design than the previous normally aspirated, twelve-cylinder arrangement. The season was a distinct improvement on the last, Villeneuve winning theÂ MonacoÂ andÂ SpanishÂ Grands Prix, but a potential championship challenge was stymied by the difficult handling and extremely poor aerodynamics of the car. However, the lessons learnt from the team’s first racing experience with a turbo car in F1 prepared it well forÂ 1982. Throughout this season, the Ferrari was the best package, in terms of a balance between speed and reliability.
The year was, however, marred by the loss of both of Ferrari’s drivers. Team leader and favourite driver ofÂ Enzo Ferrari, Villeneuve, died in a crash during qualifying at theÂ Belgian Grand Prix, while Pironi suffered career-ending injuries before theÂ German Grand PrixÂ later in the season. Ferrari first called upÂ Patrick Tambay, in place of the late Villeneuve, and laterÂ Mario AndrettiÂ in an effort to protect Pironi’s lead in the championship, but to no avail. Ferrari did, however, win the Constructors’ Championship. In that same year the Formula One works moved partially out of the original Maranello factory into its own autonomous facility, still in Maranello but directly next to theÂ Fiorano test circuit.
Four wins byÂ RenÃ© ArnouxÂ and Patrick Tambay won the team another constructors’ title in 1983, but neither driver was consistent enough to challenge for the drivers’ title. Patrick Tambay took an especially emotional victory at San Marino in front of the Tifosi, but left to join theÂ RenaultÂ team at the end of the season.Â Michele AlboretoÂ was hired forÂ 1984Â following his impressive performances during previous year driving a Cosworth-powered Tyrrell. He won theÂ Belgian Grand Prix, but the team’s performance was not competitive enough to challenge the dominantÂ McLarensÂ ofÂ Niki LaudaÂ andÂ Alain Prost. In theÂ following year, however, Alboreto was Prost’s closest challenger for the championship, leading it at one stage before the team’s competitiveness slumped in the final races. Arnoux, meanwhile, fell out with the team and was replaced byÂ Stefan JohanssonÂ after the first race of the season.Â 1986Â continued the disappointing trend of the previous season as neither Alboreto nor Johansson could win a race, and never looked like doing so. ForÂ 1987, Johansson moved to McLaren and was replaced byÂ Gerhard Berger, who got the better of Alboreto as the season progressed and won the final two races of the championship as the car’s form improved towards the end of the season. The team remained competitive intoÂ 1988, finishing second in the Constructors’ Championship, but a long way behind McLaren, who once again dominated the season.
TheÂ 1988Â season also witnessed the end ofÂ Enzo Ferrari‘s ownership of the team. On 14 August 1988, Ferrari died at the age of 90. Fiat’s share of the company was raised to 90% with Enzo’s only remaining son,Â Piero Ferrari, inheriting the remaining share from his father. Just under a month after Enzo’s death, Berger and Alboreto completed a historic 1â€“2 at theÂ Italian Grand Prix, the only time a team other than McLaren won a Grand Prix in theÂ 1988 season. Berger dedicated the win to the late Enzo Ferrari.
1989Â saw the end of turbo-charging in Formula One. From this date, the formula was for 3.5-litre normally aspirated engines of no greater than 12 cylinders, which was a direct consequence of lobbying by Ferrari for the previous few years. The team went so far as to construct an Indycar, theÂ Ferrari 637, as a threat to theÂ FIAÂ that if they did not get what they wanted, namely the allowance of V12 engines under the revised formula, they could take part in another series. Due to the expected extreme high revs and consequent narrow power band expected of the new engines, technical directorÂ John BarnardÂ insisted upon the development of a revolutionary new gear-shifting arrangementÂ â€“ the paddle-operated, semi-automatic gearbox. In pre season testing, the experimental system proved extremely troublesome, with newly arrived driverÂ Nigel MansellÂ being unable to compete more than a handful of laps, but nonetheless they managed a debut win at the opening round inÂ Brazil. Horrendous reliability led to Berger being unable to score a point until a run of podiums at Monza, Estoril and Jerez including a win at Estoril. Mansell scored a memorable win at Budapest where he overtook world championÂ Ayrton SennaÂ for the win after qualifying far down the field in twelfth. He then dedicated the race to the memory of Enzo Ferrari as the win came a year after the latter’s death.
Then triple world championÂ Alain ProstÂ left McLaren to partner Mansell at Ferrari for theÂ 1990 Formula One season. As reigning world champion, Prost assumed the role of lead driver, much to teammate Mansell’s dismay. In his autobiography, Mansell claimed that Ferrari had switched his car with Prost’s at theÂ 1990 British Grand PrixÂ without his foreknowledge.Â Mansell departed Ferrari at the end of the 1990 season. Prost won five races and entered the penultimate round of the season, the controversialÂ 1990 Japanese Grand Prix, with a nine-point deficit to McLaren driver and former teammateÂ Ayrton Senna. A controversial first-lap collision between Senna and Prost allowed Senna to secure the 1990 FIA Formula One World Drivers’ Championship, with Prost ranking second.
Mansell was replaced by FrenchmanÂ Jean Alesi, previously driving forÂ Tyrrell, for theÂ 1991 Formula One season. However, Ferrari had entered a downturn in 1991, partially as their famous V12 engine was no longer competitive against the smaller, lighter and more fuel efficient V10s of their competitors. Prost won no races, only getting onto the podium five times. He afterwards publicly criticised the team, described his car as harder to drive than “a truck”,Â and was fired prior to the end of the season, right before theÂ Australian Grand Prix.Â Prost was replaced by ItalianÂ Gianni Morbidelli. The team won no races between 1991 and 1993.
Gerhard Berger returned to Ferrari to partner Alesi in 1993.Â Jean TodtÂ was hired as team principal. With theÂ Ferrari 412T, Berger and Alesi proved the car’s competitiveness throughout the two seasons, with a brace of podium places and four pole positions. Bad luck limited the number of wins to one each for both Berger (1994 German Grand Prix) and Alesi (1995 Canadian Grand Prix), particularly Alesi who was in a position to win at Monza and the NÃ¼rburgring in 1995, but the car was a solid and competitive proposition. Berger’s win, achieved after three seasons without any triumph in a race, set a record of at least one victory in a season during the following twenty consecutive seasons.
Ferrari completely changed their driver line-up for theÂ 1996 Formula One season, replacing Berger and Alesi with formerÂ JordanÂ driverÂ Eddie Irvine, and two-time defending world champion (formerÂ BenettonÂ driver)Â Michael Schumacher, for a salary of around $30Â million a year. Many members of theÂ BenettonÂ team’s technical staff followed, namelyÂ Ross BrawnÂ (technical director) andÂ Rory ByrneÂ (chief designer). New engine rules reducing engine capacity from 3500cc to 3000cc required Ferrari to switch to the (3.0L)Â V10 engineÂ for 1996.
Despite poor reliability, Michael Schumacher managed to score three wins during the 1996 season with theÂ Ferrari F310. In very wet conditions at theÂ Spanish Grand Prix, despite starting from the second row and having a poor start, Schumacher climbed back up the order to win the race by 45 seconds over now Benetton driver Jean Alesi. This was the first Formula One victory for a Ferrari V10 engine.Â Both Ferrari drivers retired from the three subsequent rounds on the calendar, theÂ Canadian Grand Prix, theÂ French Grand Prix, where Schumacher had qualified in pole position but failed to start after an engine failure on the formation lap, and theÂ British Grand PrixÂ respectively. At theÂ 1996 Belgian Grand Prix, superior pit strategy enabled Schumacher to emerge ahead of Williams driverÂ Jacques VilleneuveÂ to score his second win of the season. Schumacher followed up his Belgian win by winning theÂ Italian Grand PrixÂ atÂ Monza, Ferrari’s first win on home soil since 1988. Ferrari finished second in the Constructors’ Championship, with Schumacher finishing third in the drivers’ standings and Irvine tenth.
For theÂ 1997 Formula One season, the increased reliability of theÂ F310BÂ enabled Ferrari to challenge for its first Drivers’ Championship since Jody Scheckter had won Ferrari’s last drivers’ title 18 years earlier, in 1979. Michael Schumacher finished on the podium eight times during the course of the season, including five wins, and went into the final round leading Williams driverÂ Jacques VilleneuveÂ by one point.Â On Lap 48 of the final round of the 1997 season, theÂ 1997 European Grand PrixÂ atÂ Jerez, Michael Schumacher and Jacques Villeneuve collided as the latter attempted to overtake for the race lead down the inside of theÂ Dry SacÂ corner. Schumacher retired from the race, and Villeneuve clinched the 1997 Drivers’ Championship with a third-place finish.Â The stewards of the event had initially deemed the collision a racing incident.Â However, Schumacher was then summoned and disqualified from the 1997 World Drivers’ Championship for unsportsmanlike conduct in an extraordinary meeting of theÂ FIA World Motor Sport CouncilÂ on 11 November 1997.Â Ferrari’s Constructors’ Championship points, however, remained intact, and the team finished second overall. Eddie Irvine, having scored five podiums throughout the season, was classified seventh in the drivers’ standings.
Following the dramatic 1997 season, Ferrari came out with an all new car to fit the new regulations forÂ 1998, theÂ F300. Although it was a competitive package, the McLarenâ€“MercedesÂ MP4/13Â was most often stronger. Schumacher won six races that season including three in a row at Canada, France and Great Britain. The Hungarian Grand Prix was won after a tactical master-stroke by Brawn decided to make the car run a 3-stop strategy as opposed to McLaren’s 2. Schumacher then went on to lead Irvine home to Ferrari’s first 1â€“2 at Monza since the memorable 1988 race after Enzo Ferrari’s death. Schumacher lost the title to McLaren’sÂ Mika HÃ¤kkinenÂ at Suzuka after he stalled on the front row then suffered a mid-race puncture. Irvine was fourth in the championship with Ferrari second in the constructors’ title.
TheÂ 1999 Formula One seasonÂ started well for Ferrari, the team winning three of the first four races of the season. Eddie Irvine scored his maiden career win at the season-openingÂ Australian Grand Prix.Â Michael Schumacher scored back-to-back victories at theÂ San Marino Grand PrixÂ and theÂ Monaco Grand Prix.Â The team’s fortunes began to change inÂ Canada, however, with Michael Schumacher retiring from the lead of the race after sliding into the wall at the exit of the final chicane of theÂ Circuit Gilles Villeneuve, since known as the “Wall of Champions“.Â On Lap 1 of theÂ British Grand PrixÂ atÂ Silverstone, Schumacher crashed heavily atÂ Stowe CornerÂ after his rear brake failed, sending him off the circuit after he locked up at approximately 130Â mph. He broke his lower right leg as a result, forcing him to miss the next six races and ending his bid for the 1999 Drivers’ Championship.Â Ferrari replaced him withÂ Mika Salo.Â Irvine became Ferrari’s main contender for the drivers’ title. He won the next two rounds inÂ AustriaÂ and inÂ Germany. Schumacher returned for the final two races of the season, handing Irvine the race lead and eventual win at the inauguralÂ Malaysian Grand Prix. Both Ferrari drivers had been disqualified after the race as the side deflector panel on both cars was deemed to have been one centimetre too long, making Mika HÃ¤kkinen the provisional Drivers’ Champion.Â However, both Ferrari cars were reinstated on appeal, and Irvine led the drivers’ standings by four points over HÃ¤kkinen going into the final round.Â Irvine ultimately fell short of the 1999 Drivers’ Championship at the season-endingÂ Japanese Grand Prix, where he finished third, losing to HÃ¤kkinen by two points in the final standings. Schumacher’s second place in the race helped Ferrari secure the 1999 Constructors’ Championship, their first since 1983.
Ferrari replaced Irvine withÂ Rubens BarrichelloÂ ahead of theÂ 2000 Formula One season.Â The season started well, with Schumacher and Barrichello scoring a 1â€“2 finish inÂ AustraliaÂ after both McLaren drivers retired from the race.Â Schumacher followed his Australian win with consecutive victories inÂ BrazilÂ and inÂ San Marino, to lead the drivers’ standings by 21 points after only three races.Â Schumacher’s early points lead was minimised, however, after a string of consecutive retirements inÂ France,Â Austria, andÂ GermanyÂ left him with only a two-point lead over reigning world champion Mika HÃ¤kkinen. At the German Grand Prix atÂ Hockenheim, Barrichello scored his maiden career win after starting 18th on the grid.Â At theÂ 2000 Italian Grand Prix, Schumacher scored his 41st career victory to match the victory tally ofÂ Ayrton Senna. During the post-race press conference, he burst into tears when asked if the record “meant a lot” to him.Â Schumacher won the 2000 Drivers’ Championship in theÂ F1-2000Â at theÂ Japanese Grand Prix, becoming Ferrari’s first Drivers’ Champion since Jody Scheckter in 1979.Â Barrichello was classified fourth in the final standings, and Ferrari took its second consecutive Constructors’ Championship.
Michael Schumacher and Ferrari continued their dominant run into theÂ 2001 Formula One season, winning the first two races inÂ AustraliaÂ and inÂ Malaysia.Â Schumacher took his third victory of the season when, on the last lap of theÂ Spanish Grand Prix, McLaren driver Mika HÃ¤kkinen retired from the race lead with mechanical failure.Â Wins inÂ Monaco,Â Europe, andÂ FranceÂ helped Schumacher secure his lead in the drivers’ standings, and he secured his fourth Drivers’ Championship after winning theÂ Hungarian Grand Prix, with four races remaining.Â At theÂ Belgian Grand Prix, Michael Schumacher scored his 52nd career victory to surpass Alain Prost’s record of most Grand Prix victories.Â TheÂ Italian Grand PrixÂ was the first Formula One race held after theÂ September 11 attacksÂ in the United States.Â Ferrari removed all advertising and painted the nosecones of both of its cars black as a mark of respect to the victims.Â Ferrari won their third consecutive Constructors’ Championship, as Barrichello was classified third in the drivers’ standings, despite scoring no wins.
Ferrari dominated theÂ 2002 Formula One season, the team winning 15 out of 17 races (Schumacher 11, Barrichello 4) to match McLaren’s record number of wins in a season, set back inÂ 1988.Â Their successful run, however, was tainted by a team orders controversy at theÂ Austrian Grand Prix. In a replay of 2001, Barrichello was asked to give way to Schumacher on the final lap of the Grand Prix, except this time for the win. An embarrassed Schumacher then pushed Barrichello to the top step of the podium, and Ferrari were subsequently fined $1Â million by the FIA for interfering with podium procedures.Â This debacle eventually led to the banning of team orders ahead of theÂ 2003Â season. Schumacher matched Juan Manuel Fangio’s record of five world championships, set in the 1950s, at theÂ 2002 French Grand Prix.Â Ferrari finished 1â€“2 at theÂ United States Grand Prix, Barrichello leading Schumacher after the latter had slowed down on the last lap to attempt a ‘dead heat’ with his teammate, by a margin of 0.011 seconds, in one of the closest finishes in Formula One history.
The first race of theÂ 2003 Formula One season, theÂ Australian Grand Prix, brought Ferrari’s domination to a halt, as it was the first race since theÂ 1999 European Grand PrixÂ where neither Ferrari driver had finished on the podium. McLaren had an early lead in the standings, but Ferrari had closed the points gap by theÂ Canadian Grand Prix. Both championships were still undecided at the last round of the 2003 season, theÂ Japanese Grand Prix. After having started 14th, Schumacher finished eighth in the race, and clinched his sixth championship by two points over McLaren driverÂ Kimi RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen, surpassing Juan Manuel Fangio’s record; Ferrari managed to win their 13thÂ Constructors’ ChampionshipÂ with Rubens Barrichello winning the race after starting from pole position.Â In 2003, F1 magazine reported that Ferrari’s budget was $443,800,000.
TheÂ 2004 Formula One seasonÂ saw Ferrari return to dominance. Schumacher won 13 of the 18 races, and 12 of the first 13 of the seasonâ€“ both F1 records. He won his seventh and finalÂ Drivers’ ChampionshipÂ by finishing second at theÂ Belgian Grand Prix, with four races still remaining. Barrichello finished second in the standings, and Ferrari easily wrapped up the Constructors’ Championship. Barrichello won twice, at theÂ Italian Grand PrixÂ and theÂ Chinese Grand PrixÂ respectively.
TheÂ 2005 Formula One seasonÂ saw a change of fortune for Ferrari. The team started the year with the F2004M, a modified version of the previous year’s car pending full development of their new car, theÂ F2005, which was scheduled to be introduced at theÂ Spanish Grand Prix. The car lacked pace in comparison with other teams (particularly McLaren and Renault who started the year with brand new cars). Alarmed by poor performances in theÂ Australian Grand PrixÂ and in theÂ Malaysian Grand Prix, the F2005 was rushed into service at the third round, theÂ Bahrain Grand Prix, where Schumacher retired from hydraulics failure, his first mechanical failure since theÂ 2001 German Grand Prix, ending a run of 58 Grands Prix without technical failure.
The poor relative performance of the team’sÂ BridgestoneÂ tyres was also cited as a reason for Ferrari’s lack of performance in 2005. The Bridgestone tyres failed to give sufficient grip in qualifying and were not as durable as theirÂ MichelinÂ rivals during races. However, the tyres provided for theÂ San Marino Grand PrixÂ were more competitive, and the Bridgestone tyres supplied for theÂ United States Grand PrixÂ allowed the three Bridgestone teams to race, while the seven Michelin teams were forced to withdraw.
In August 2005, Rubens Barrichello announced that he was leaving Ferrari at the end of the year to join theÂ HondaÂ team, citing a need for ‘renewed motivation’, and rumoured to have been ‘unhappy with his continued status as number two to Schumacher’.Â Ferrari named thenÂ SauberÂ driverÂ Felipe MassaÂ as Barrichello’s replacement for theÂ 2006 Formula One season.
Ferrari’s 2006 car, theÂ 248 F1, was the first car developed entirely underÂ Aldo Costa, after the departure of Rory Byrne.Â Ferrari finished 1â€“2 in theÂ United States Grand Prix. Massa won his first race at theÂ Turkish Grand Prix, and Schumacher announced his retirement at theÂ Italian Grand Prix, which he won.Â Kimi RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nenÂ was announced as Schumacher’s replacement for the 2007 season.Â Still in contention for the championship, Schumacher won his final race at theÂ Chinese Grand Prix, but ultimately fell short of an eighth drivers title.Â At theÂ Brazilian Grand PrixÂ Schumacher finished fourth in his final race for Ferrari, setting the fastest lap following a puncture, the race was won by Massa. Ferrari finished five points behind Renault for the Constructors’ Championship.
In theÂ F2007,Â Kimi RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nenÂ won the inaugural race of theÂ 2007 Formula One season, the first Ferrari driver to win on his Ferrari debut sinceÂ Nigel MansellÂ in 1989. RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen subsequently won the Drivers’ Championship by one point over both McLaren drivers, and, with nine victories, Ferrari won the Constructors’ Championship.
TheÂ 2007 Formula One espionage controversyÂ directly concerned Ferrari employeeÂ Nigel Stepney, who was dismissed by the team as a result.Â The case revolved around the theft of technical information.
After the end of the 2007 season, Ferrari PresidentÂ Luca Cordero di MontezemoloÂ announced a new structure for the team, withÂ Jean TodtÂ departing the team principal role and moving up to his senior role as CEO of the company,Â Stefano DomenicaliÂ took over as team principal asÂ Ross BrawnÂ declined a return following his sabbatical (he became Team Principal ofÂ Honda),Â Aldo CostaÂ as technical director andÂ Mario AlmondoÂ as Operations Director.Â It had been reported that this completed a shift in Ferrari personnel where the older foreign leadership was replaced with a new one composed mostly of Italians.
TheÂ F2008Â was Ferrari’s car for theÂ 2008 Formula One season. RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen led the championship early on after taking two victories from the early rounds, but multiple incidents for him later on saw Massa battle McLaren’sÂ Lewis HamiltonÂ for the Drivers’ Championship until the end of the season.Â Massa went into the final race of the season, theÂ Brazilian Grand Prix, in contention for the championship. Massa won the race, but ultimately lost the drivers’ title to Hamilton after the latter managed to get pastÂ Timo GlockÂ for fifth place on the final lap of the race.Â However, Ferrari did win the Constructors’ World Championship. In October 2008, Ferrari issued a statement saying that they would reconsider their participation in Formula One beyond theÂ 2009 Formula One season, due to the FIA’s desire to introduce standardised engines from 2010.Â The FIA’s plan was never implemented.
Ferrari started theÂ 2009 Formula One seasonÂ poorly with theÂ F60, recording their worst start to a season sinceÂ 1981.Â During qualifying for theÂ 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix, Felipe Massa was injured when he was struck by a spring that had detached from the rear suspension of Rubens Barrichello’sÂ Brawn BGP 001.Â He was poised to be replaced by former Ferrari teammate and seven-time Formula One champion Michael Schumacher as of theÂ European Grand Prix, but the latter was sidelined by a motorbike injury he had sustained earlier in the year.Â Massa was eventually replaced byÂ Luca Badoer, and later byÂ Giancarlo Fisichella, for the remainder of the 2009 season.Â Ferrari recorded their only win of the 2009 season at theÂ Belgian Grand Prix, where Kimi RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen won ahead of pole-sitter Giancarlo Fisichella (Force India) after having started sixth.
Domination in the early 2000s
|Season||Chassis||Races||Wins||Pole positions||1â€“2 finishes||Podiums||Fastest laps||Average winning margin||Points||Percentage of max attainable points||WDC||WCC|
|2000||F1-2000||17||10||10||3||21||4||12.1 seconds||170||63%||1st, 4th||1st|
|2001||F2001||17||9||11||3||24||3||14.8 seconds||179||66%||1st, 3rd||1st|
|2002||F2001,Â F2002||17||15||10||9||27||10||19.9 seconds||221||81%||1st, 2nd||1st|
|2003||F2002B,Â F2003-GA||16||8||8||0||16||8||6.5 seconds||158||62%||1st, 4th||1st|
|2004||F2004||18||15||11||8||29||14||17.5 seconds||262||81%||1st, 2nd||1st|
Despite still having a year of his contract remaining, RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen left Ferrari and was replaced by the double world championÂ Fernando Alonso.Â Ferrari announced that Felipe Massa would partner Fernando Alonso until at least the end of theÂ 2012 Formula One season.
TheÂ 2010 Formula One seasonÂ started with Fernando Alonso leading a Ferrari 1â€“2, with Massa second, at theÂ 2010 Bahrain Grand Prix.Â However, after the first seven races, Ferrari were lying third in the Constructors’ Championship, following a string of low points finishes. Ferrari remained third in the Constructors’ Championship following a controversial 1â€“2 finish at theÂ German Grand Prix, where Ferrari were deemed to have given an order to Felipe Massa to give the lead of the race to Fernando Alonso. Team orders had been banned in Formula One since 2003. The stewards fined Ferrari $100,000Â â€“ the maximum penalty race stewards could impose. The incident was referred to theÂ FIA World Motor Sport CouncilÂ for review, and no further action was taken. Alonso won further races atÂ Monza,Â SingaporeÂ and the inaugural race inÂ KoreaÂ as he finished the season second toÂ Sebastian Vettel.
Ferrari launched its 2011 car, theÂ Ferrari 150Âº ItaliaÂ in January 2011, withÂ FordÂ declaring intentions to sue over the use of the F150 nameÂ â€“ under which the car had been launchedÂ â€“ Ferrari began referring to the car as the “F150th Italia”.Â In March 2011, the car’s name was changed again to “150Âº Italia”, with theÂ Italian languageÂ ordinal indicatorÂ Âº being used to replace the English language -th.Â Ford and Ferrari also settled their legal matter, asking for the case to be dismissed at a court in Detroit.Â In 2011 Alonso renewed his contract with Ferrari to at least the end of the 2016 season.Â Massa renewed his contract for one more season alongside Alonso.
The 2012 Formula One season saw Ferrari continue with the driver pairing of the previous two years ofÂ Fernando AlonsoÂ andÂ Felipe Massa,Â with Alonso once again narrowly missing out on the drivers’ title.
Ferrari’s car for theÂ 2013 Formula One seasonÂ is theÂ Ferrari F138. Massa was replaced byÂ Kimi RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nenÂ for 2014, while Alonso was retained. Despite having such a line-up, the team struggled throughout the season, only achieving two podiums and finishing fourth in the Constructors’ Championship behind a resurgent Williams, marking Ferrari’s first winless season sinceÂ 1993.Â Stefano DomenicaliÂ was replaced as team principal byÂ Marco Mattiacci. Prior to theÂ 2014 Italian Grand Prix,Â Luca Cordero di MontezemoloÂ announced his resignation as Ferrari chairman. RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen was retained for theÂ 2015Â season while Alonso left the team, to rejoinÂ McLaren. He was replaced byÂ Sebastian Vettel, who leftÂ Red Bull Racing.Â In October 2014, the team announced replacing its outdated simulator software to the more capable rFpro.
After a massive management overhaul, withÂ Sergio MarchionneÂ andÂ Maurizio ArrivabeneÂ replacing di Montezemolo and Mattiacci as Ferrari President and Team Principal respectively, the team enjoyed an improved start to theÂ 2015Â season, with Sebastian Vettel taking third inÂ Australia. However, RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen was forced to retire from the race due to a loose wheel. The team ended their 34-race winless streak inÂ MalaysiaÂ when Vettel held off both Mercedes cars to claim his first victory since leaving Red Bull at the end of the previous year. Sebastian Vettel managed to win twice more for Ferrari in 2015, at theÂ 2015 Hungarian Grand Prix, and finally at theÂ 2015 Singapore Grand Prix. Vettel and RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen finished third and fourth respectively in the drivers’ standings.
After scoring no wins during theÂ 2016Â season, Ferrari scored their 225th Formula One victory at theÂ 2017 Australian Grand Prix, courtesy of Sebastian Vettel, who had not won a race since theÂ 2015 Singapore Grand Prix.Â Vettel took the lead of the World Drivers’ Championship standings, the first time a Ferrari driver had done so since theÂ 2012 Japanese Grand Prix, 1,625 days prior, and became the first non-Mercedes driver to do so since Vettel himself had done so at the end of theÂ 2013Â season. It was also the first time a team other than Mercedes led the World Constructors’ Championship standings since the start ofÂ 2014.Â At theÂ Chinese Grand Prix, Vettel finished second behind Mercedes driver Lewis Hamilton, while Kimi RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen finished fifth.Â Vettel took his second victory of the season at theÂ 2017 Bahrain Grand PrixÂ after starting third to extend his lead in the Drivers’ Championship standings. RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen’s fourth place in the race gave Ferrari a three-point lead in the Constructors’ Championship standings.
Ferrari’s first 1â€“2 finish since 2010 came at theÂ Monaco Grand Prix, where Vettel became the first Ferrari driver to win in Monaco since Michael Schumacher had done so 16 years earlier, in 2001.Â The event also marked Kimi RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen’s first pole position since theÂ 2008 French Grand Prix, almost nine years earlier, after beating Vettel by 0.043 seconds in qualifying. Controversy followed at theÂ 2017 Azerbaijan Grand Prix. On lap 19 of the Grand Prix, immediately prior to the Safety Car restart, Sebastian Vettel and Lewis Hamilton collided after the former hit the latter in the rear. Vettel, having judged Hamilton, the leader, to have brake-tested him at the exit of Turn 15 of theÂ Baku City Circuit, then drove alongside him and turned into him. Vettel was awarded a 10-second stop-and-go penalty for his actions, losing a win after Hamilton had issues of his own. Vettel, however, still re-emerged ahead of Hamilton after the former served his penalty and extended his lead in the Drivers’ Championship.Â The FIA, the sport’s governing body, summoned Vettel to an extraordinary meeting of theÂ FIA World Motor Sport CouncilÂ for his actions at the Azerbaijan Grand Prix, but ruled that no further action was necessary after Vettel issued a full apology.Â After four races without a win, Ferrari returned to success at theÂ Hungarian Grand PrixÂ with a victory byÂ Sebastian VettelÂ and their second 1â€“2 of the season. Vettel lost his lead in the Drivers’ Championship to Hamilton at theÂ Italian Grand Prix,Â on Ferrari home ground.
After taking pole position at the nextÂ raceÂ in Singapore and Hamilton only qualifying fifth,Â Vettel looked set to regain the championship lead, however a crash between him, Raikkonen andÂ Red Bull‘sÂ Max VerstappenÂ right after the start of the race took all three drivers out and elevated Hamilton to the lead. Hamilton went on to win the Grand Prix and extended his championship lead to 28 points.Â InÂ Malaysia, Vettel failed to set a time in qualifying due to an engine issue he suffered in Free Practice 3, a few hours earlier, and therefore started last on the grid,Â while Hamilton took pole. Raikkonen qualified second but failed to even start the race after yet another engine issue.Â Vettel climbed up to fourth in the race, but Hamilton extended his advantage to 34 points after finishing second.Â InÂ Japan, Vettel and Ferrari’s championship aspirations took yet another blow, after the German retired on lap 4 due to a spark plug failure.Â Mercedes claimed the Constructos’ Championship at theÂ United States Grand Prix,Â while Hamilton claimed the Drivers’ Championship at theÂ next raceÂ in Mexico.Â Vettel took Ferrari’s first win since Hungary and the last of 2017 inÂ Brazil.
On 22 August 2017, Ferrari announced thatÂ Kimi RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nenÂ had been re-signed for the 2018 season.Â On 26 August 2017, Ferrari announced thatÂ Sebastian VettelÂ had also re-signed, meaning that Ferrari’s duo of drivers would remain unchanged for the fourth consecutive year inÂ 2018.Â On 11 September 2018, Ferrari announced that RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nen would be leaving forÂ SauberÂ andÂ Charles LeclercÂ and Vettel would be the team’s race drivers for 2019. On 7 January 2019, Ferrari announced thatÂ Maurizio ArrivabeneÂ had been replaced byÂ Mattia BinottoÂ as team principal for the 2019 season.
Ferrari has always produced engines for its own Formula One cars, and has also supplied engines to other teams. Ferrari has previously supplied engines toÂ MinardiÂ (1991),Â Scuderia ItaliaÂ (1992â€“1993),Â SauberÂ (1997â€“2005 with engines badged as ‘Petronas‘, and 2010â€“2018),Â ProstÂ (2001, badged ‘Acer‘),Â Red Bull RacingÂ (2006),Â SpykerÂ (2007),Â Scuderia Toro RossoÂ (2007â€“2013, 2016),Â Force IndiaÂ (2008) andÂ MarussiaÂ (2014â€“2015).
When regulations changed in 2014, Cosworth decided not to make the new V6 turbo engines. Marussia, the only team that Cosworth supplied at the time, signed a multi-year deal with Ferrari, starting in 2014. As of 2020, Ferrari supplies theÂ Haas F1 TeamÂ andÂ Alfa Romeo Racing.
Relationship with governing body
Ferrari did not enter the first ever race of the championship, theÂ 1950 British Grand PrixÂ due to a dispute with the organisers over “start money”. In the 1960s Ferrari withdrew from several races in ‘strike’ actions.
In 1987, Ferrari considered abandoning Formula One for the American IndyCar series. This threat was used as a bargaining tool with the FIAÂ â€“ Enzo Ferrari offered to cancel the IndyCar Project and commit to Formula One on the condition that the technical regulations were not changed to exclude V12 engines. The FIA agreed to this, and the IndyCar project was shelved, although a car, theÂ Ferrari 637Â had already been constructed.
In 2009, it had emerged that Ferrari had an FIA-sanctioned veto on the technical regulations.
Team orders controversies
Team orders have proven controversial at several points in Ferrari’s history.
At theÂ 1982 San Marino Grand Prix, the two Ferraris were leading withÂ Gilles VilleneuveÂ ahead ofÂ Didier Pironi. The team showed the ‘slow’ sign to its drivers, and, as per a pre-race agreement, the driver leading at that point was expected to take the win of the Grand Prix. Villeneuve slowed, and expected that Pironi would follow, but the latter did not, and passed Villeneuve. Villeneuve was angered by what he saw as betrayal by his teammate, and at one point had even refused to go onto the podium.Â This feud is often considered to have been a contributory factor to his fatal accident in qualifying at the next race, theÂ 1982 Belgian Grand Prix.
UK Should Not Expect Big Changes
At theÂ 2002 Austrian Grand Prix, after having started from pole position and leading the first 70 laps, Rubens Barrichello was instructed to let Ferrari teammate Michael Schumacher pass him, a move that proved to be unpopular among many Formula One fans and theÂ FÃ©dÃ©ration Internationale de l’Automobile, the sport’s governing body.Â Following this incident and others in which team orders were used, such asÂ McLaren‘s use of them at theÂ 1997 European Grand PrixÂ and at theÂ 1998 Australian Grand Prix, andÂ Jordan Grand Prix‘s at theÂ 1998 Belgian Grand Prix, team orders in Formula One were officially banned ahead of theÂ 2003 Formula One season.
On lap 49 of theÂ 2010 German Grand Prix, Fernando Alonso went past Felipe Massa for the race lead, after Ferrari had informed Massa that Alonso was ‘faster than him’. This communication has widely been interpreted as a team order from Ferrari. Alonso won the race, with Massa finishing second and Sebastian Vettel taking the final place on the podium.Â Ferrari were fined the maximum penalty available to the stewards, $100,000, for breach of regulations and for ‘bringing the sport into disrepute’ as per ‘Article 151c’ of theÂ International Sporting Code. Ferrari said they would not contest the fine. The team were referred to theÂ FIA World Motor Sport Council, where the Council upheld the view of the stewards, but did not take any further action.
F1 team sponsorship
The Ferrari Formula One team was resistant to sponsorship for many years and it was not until 1977 that the cars began to feature the logo of theÂ FiatÂ group (which had been the owners of the Ferrari company since 1969). Until the 1980s, the only other companies whose logos appeared on Ferrari’s F1 cars were technical partners such asÂ Magneti Marelli,Â BremboÂ andÂ Agip.
At the end of theÂ 1996Â seasonÂ Philip Morris InternationalÂ through its brandÂ MarlboroÂ withdrew its sponsorship agreement withÂ McLarenÂ after 22 years (sinceÂ 1974) to become the title sponsor of Ferrari, resulting to the change of the official teamÂ´s name toÂ Scuderia Ferrari MarlboroÂ from the beginning of theÂ 1997Â season until theÂ 2011 European Grand Prix. Marlboro had already been FerrariÂ´s minor sponsor since theÂ 1984Â season and increased to the teamÂ´s major sponsorship in theÂ 1993Â season. In September 2005 Ferrari signed an extension of the arrangement until 2011 at a time when advertising of tobacco sponsorship had become illegal in the European Union and other major teams had withdrawn from relationships with tobacco companies (e.g., McLaren had ended its eight-year relationship withÂ West). In reporting the deal,Â F1 RacingÂ magazine judged it to be a ‘black day’ for the sport, putting non-tobacco funded teams at a disadvantage and discouraging other brands from entering a sport still associated with tobacco. The magazine estimated that in the period between 2005 and 2011 Ferrari received $1Â billion from the agreement. The last time Ferrari ran explicit tobacco sponsorship on the car was in the 2007Â Chinese Grand Prix, with barcodes and other subliminal markers used afterwards. On 8 July 2011, it was announced that the ‘Marlboro‘ section of its official team name had been removed from theÂ 2011 British Grand PrixÂ onwards, following complaints from sponsorship regulators.Â As a consequence, the official teamÂ´s name was reverted back toÂ Scuderia Ferrari. At theÂ 2018 Japanese Grand PrixÂ Ferrari added Philip Morris International’s new ‘Mission Winnow’ project logos to the car and team clothing.Â Although Mission Winnow is described as a non-tobacco brand “dedicated to science, technology and innovation”, commentators such asÂ The Guardian‘sÂ Richard Williams have noted that the logos incorporate elements whose shapes mimic the iconic Marlboro cigarette packet design.Â In 2019 ‘Mission Winnow’ became the team’s title sponsor, and the team originally entered the 2019 F1 season as ‘Scuderia Ferrari Mission Winnow’.Â However, ‘Mission Winnow’ was dropped from team name before the season opener,Â while the car’s ‘Mission Winnow’ logos were replaced by a special 90th anniversary logoÂ after Australian authorities had launched an investigation into whether the initiative introduced by Philip Morris contravened laws banning tobacco advertising.Â ‘Mission Winnow’ was restored for the second race of the seasonÂ and used until the Monaco Grand Prix.Â The ‘Mission Winnow’ logos were again replaced by the 90th anniversary logos for the Canadian until the Russian Grand Prix.Â Before the ‘Mission Winnow’ returned at the Japanese Grand Prix.
On 10 September 2009, Ferrari announced that it would be sponsored byÂ SantanderÂ from 2010 on a five-year contract.Â It was believed[by whom?]Â that Santander would pay around â‚¬40Â million ($56.5Â million, Â£35Â million) per season to sponsor Ferrari. The contract was subsequently extended to end in late 2017.
As part of the deal withÂ Acer, Acer was allowed to sell Ferrari-badged laptops.Â On the other hand, in early 2009 semiconductor chip maker AMD announced it had decided to drop its sponsorship of the team and was just waiting for its contract to expire after its former vice-president / sales executive (who was an avid fan of motorsports) had left the company.
On 3 July 2014, Ferrari announced a two-year sponsorship agreement with the United States-basedÂ Haas AutomationÂ tool company, which transferred into a powertrain deal in 2016 when theÂ Haas F1 TeamÂ entered the sport.
On 14 April 2018,Â AMDÂ announced a multi-year sponsorship with Scuderia Ferrari on the occasion of the Chinese Grand Prix held on the Shanghai Circuit. The AMD logo was visible on the nose of theÂ SF71H.
The companies currently sponsoring Scuderia Ferrari for the 2019Â season includeÂ Shell,Â Ray-Ban,Â Kaspersky Lab,Â Shell,Â UPS,Â Lenovo,Â Weichai Holding Group Co., Ltd.,Â Hublot,Â Mahle GmbH,Â OMRÂ andÂ AMD.
The official suppliers of Scuderia Ferrari for the 2019Â season includeÂ Pirelli,Â Puma,Â EightCap,Â Laszmoe,Â Infor,Â Experis-Veritaaq,Â SKF,Â Magneti Marelli,Â NGK,Â Brembo,Â Riedel Communications,Â VistaJetÂ andÂ Iveco.Â Other suppliers includeÂ Alfa Romeo,Â Palantir Technologies,Â Bell SportsÂ andÂ OZ Group.
Formula One results
As a constructor, Ferrari has achieved the following:
- Constructors’ Championships winning percentage:Â 25.8%
- Drivers’ Championships winning percentage:Â 21.4%
- Winning percentage:Â 24%
Ferrari has achieved unparalleled success inÂ Formula OneÂ and holds many significant records including (all numbers are based on World Championship events only):
|Record||As a team||As a constructor|
|Most Constructors’ Championships||16||16|
|Most Drivers’ Championships||15||15|
|Most Grands Prix participated||993||993|
|Most Grands Prix started||990||991|
|Most podium finishes||765 (in 579 races)||770 (in 582 races)|
|Most 1â€“2 finishes||83||84|
|MostÂ pole positions||228||228|
|Most qualifying 1-2s||79||79|
|Most Constructors’ Championship points||8,257.5|
|Most Drivers’ Championship points||9,159.27|
|Most fastest laps||253||254|
|Most consecutive seasons with at least one victory during a season||20 (1994â€“2013)||20 (1994â€“2013)|
Ferrari is also the most successful F1 engine manufacturer, with 239 wins (having achieved a single non-Ferrari victory withÂ Scuderia Toro RossoÂ at theÂ 2008 Italian Grand Prix, as well as one Ferrari privateer win at theÂ 1961 French Grand Prix).
- Â Alberto AscariÂ (1952,Â 1953)
- Â Juan Manuel FangioÂ (1956)
- Â Mike HawthornÂ (1958)
- Â Phil HillÂ (1961)
- Â John SurteesÂ (1964)
- Â Niki LaudaÂ (1975,Â 1977)
- Â Jody ScheckterÂ (1979)
- Â Michael SchumacherÂ (2000,Â 2001,Â 2002,Â 2003,Â 2004)
- Â Kimi RÃ¤ikkÃ¶nenÂ (2007)
Team Principals/Sporting Directors
- Federico Giberti (1950â€“1951)
- Nello Ugolini (1952â€“1955)
- Eraldo Sculati (1956)
- Mino Amorotti (1957)
- Romolo Tavoni (1958â€“1961)
- Eugenio Dragoni (1962â€“1966)
- Franco Lini (1967)
- Franco Gozzi (1968â€“1970)
- Peter Schetty (1971â€“1972)
- Alessandro Colombo (1973)
- Luca Cordero di Montezemolo
- Daniele AudettoÂ (1976)
- Roberto Nosetto (1977)
- Marco PiccininiÂ (1978â€“1988)
- Cesare FiorioÂ (1989â€“1991)
- Claudio LombardiÂ (1991)
- Sante Ghedini (1992â€“1993)
- Jean TodtÂ (1993â€“2007)
- Stefano DomenicaliÂ (2008â€“2014)
- Marco MattiacciÂ (2014)
- Maurizio ArrivabeneÂ (2015â€“2018)
- Mattia BinottoÂ (2019â€“)
Between 1950 and 1966, numerous private teams entered Ferrari cars in World Championship events. Between them, these teams achieved 5 podium finishes, includingÂ Giancarlo Baghetti‘s win in theÂ 1961 French Grand Prix, and a fastest lap (Baghetti in theÂ 1961 Italian Grand Prix).
Ferrari competed in theÂ Formula 2Â series in several years, as follows:
From the late 1940s to the early 1970s, Ferrari competed inÂ sports car racingÂ with great success, winning theÂ World Sportscar ChampionshipÂ 13 times. Ferrari scored early successes in sportcars, taking wins in the 1950 and 1951Â Mille Miglia, although the 1951 victory resulted in a lengthy litigation when Ascari crashed through a barrier and killed a local doctor.
In 1953, theÂ World Sportscar ChampionshipÂ was established, and Scuderia Ferrari along with other manufacturers such asÂ Aston Martin,Â Mercedes-Benz,Â JaguarÂ began to enter multiple factory backed cars in races such as theÂ Le Mans 24 Hours. Ferrari launched a large range of sports racers over the next three years. This included the traditional compactÂ ColomboÂ V12-poweredÂ 166 MMÂ andÂ 250 MM; the larger V12Â LamprediÂ 340 MM,Â 375 MM,Â 375 PlusÂ andÂ 410 S; andÂ JanoÂ 290 MM,Â 315 SÂ andÂ 335 S; the four-cylinderÂ 500, 625, 750, and 860 Monzas, and the six-cylinderÂ 376 S and 735 LM. With this potent line-up, Ferrari was able to claim six of the first seven WSC titles: 1953, 1954, 1956, 1957, and 1958.
This sportscar championship included road races such as theÂ Carrera PanamericanaÂ in Mexico,Â Mille MigliaÂ in Italy and the SicilianÂ Targa Florio. Ferrari cars (including non-works entries) won theÂ Mille MigliaÂ eight times, theÂ Targa FlorioÂ seven times, and theÂ 24 hours of Le MansÂ nine times. Throughout the 1960s, Ferrari were a dominant force in sportscar racing, winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans 6 years in a row from 1960 to 1965.
With the introduction of the Sports Prototypes class, Ferrari developed theÂ P series, but 1970s were to be the last decade Ferrari entered as a works effort in sports car racing. After an uninspired performance in the 1973 F1 World Championship, Enzo Ferrari
stopped all developmen
t of sports cars in prototype and GT racing at the end of the year, in order to concentrate on Formula One.
Ferrari cars were raced in a range of classes such as GT Racing by other entrants, but not by the factory Scuderia Ferrari team. In the 1990s, Ferrari returned to Sports prototypes as
a constructor with theÂ 333SPÂ with success, although Scuderia Ferrari itself never raced this car.
In the 2010s, Italy’sÂ AF CorseÂ and United States’Â Risi CompetizioneÂ have competed with factory support in the GTE Pro/GTLM class at theÂ 24 Hours of Le Mans,Â European Le Mans Series,Â FIA World Endurance Championship,Â American Le Mans SeriesÂ andÂ IMSA SportsCar Championship. Notable Ferrari GT factory drivers includeÂ Giancarlo Fisichella,Â Gianmaria Bruni,Â Mika Salo,Â Toni Vilander,Â Olivier Beretta,Â Kamui Kobayashi,Â Jaime Melo,Â James Calado,Â Alessandro Pier Guidi,Â Daniel SerraÂ andÂ Davide Rigon.
TheÂ AF CorseÂ won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in GTE Pro class three times: in 2012 and 2014 with theÂ Ferrari 458 GT2Â driven by Bruni, Fisichella and Vilander, and in 2019 with theÂ Ferrari 488 GTEÂ driven by Pier Guidi, Calado and Serra. They won also theÂ FIA WECÂ GT manufacturers World Championship in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2016 and 2017, and the FIA WEC
GT drivers championship in 2013, 2014 with Bruni and the 2017 with Calado and Pier Guidi, theÂ Intercontinental Le Mans CupÂ in 2011 and theÂ Petit Le Mans 2011Â class GTE Pro with Bruni, Fisichella and Kaffer. All the Le Mans and FIA WEC title were won with the 51 car. They won also theÂ FIA GT ChampionshipÂ GT2 class team chamionship in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009.
The North American team Risi Competizione scored in GT2 class two win at theÂ 24 Hours of Le MansÂ in 2008 and 2009, theÂ 2009 12 Hours of SebringÂ andÂ 2010 12 Hours of Sebring, theÂ 2009 Petit Le MansÂ with Ferrari 430 GT2. With the Ferrari 488 GTE and Ferrari factory drivers they won the 2016 andÂ 2019 Petit Le MansÂ and scored multiple podium at 24 Hours of Daytona and 24 Hours of Le Mans