PortugalÂ (Portuguese:Â [puÉ¾tuËˆÉ£al]), officially theÂ Portuguese RepublicÂ (Portuguese:Â RepÃºblica PortuguesaÂ [ÊÉ›ËˆpuÎ²likÉ puÉ¾tuËˆÉ£ezÉ]),[note 5]Â is a country located mostly on theÂ Iberian Peninsula, inÂ southwestern Europe. It is the westernmostÂ sovereign stateÂ ofÂ mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by theÂ Atlantic OceanÂ and to the north and east byÂ Spain. Its territory also includes the AtlanticÂ archipelagosÂ of theÂ AzoresÂ andÂ Madeira, bothÂ autonomous regionsÂ with their ownÂ regional governments.
Portugal is the oldestÂ nation stateÂ on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest inÂ Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over sinceÂ prehistoric times. TheÂ pre-CelticÂ people,Â Iberians,Â CeltsÂ andÂ RomansÂ were followed by the invasions of theÂ VisigothsÂ andÂ SuebiÂ Germanic peoples. After theÂ MuslimÂ conquest of theÂ Iberian Peninsula, most of its territory was part ofÂ Al-Andalus. Portugal as a country was established during the early ChristianÂ Reconquista. Founded in 868, theÂ County of PortugalÂ gained prominence after theÂ Battle of SÃ£o MamedeÂ (1128). TheÂ Kingdom of PortugalÂ was later proclaimed following theÂ Battle of OuriqueÂ (1139), and independence fromÂ LeÃ³nÂ was recognised by theÂ Treaty of ZamoraÂ (1143).
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established theÂ first global empire, becoming one of the world’s major economic, political and militaryÂ powers.Â During this period, today referred to as theÂ Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of PrinceÂ Henry the NavigatorÂ and KingÂ John II, with such notable voyages asÂ Bartolomeu Dias‘ sailing beyond theÂ Cape of Good HopeÂ (1488),Â Vasco da Gama‘sÂ discovery of the sea route to IndiaÂ (1497â€“98) and the European discovery ofÂ BrazilÂ (1500). During this time Portugal monopolized theÂ spice trade,Â divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, and the empire expanded with military campaigns inÂ Asia. However, events such as theÂ 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country’s occupation during theÂ Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil (1822) erased to a great extentÂ Portugal’s prior opulence.
After theÂ 1910 revolutionÂ deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstableÂ Portuguese First RepublicÂ was established, later being superseded by theÂ Estado NovoÂ authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after theÂ Carnation RevolutionÂ (1974), ending theÂ Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost allÂ its overseas territories. TheÂ handover of Macau to ChinaÂ (1999) marked the end of what can be considered theÂ longest-lived colonial empire.
Portugal has left a profound cultural, architectural and linguistic influenceÂ across the globe, with a legacy of around 250 millionÂ Portuguese speakers, and manyÂ Portuguese-based creoles. It is aÂ developed countryÂ with anÂ advanced economyÂ and highÂ living standards.Â Additionally, it is highly placed in rankings ofÂ moral freedomÂ (2nd),Â peacefulnessÂ (3rd),Â democracyÂ (8th),Â press freedomÂ (12th),Â stabilityÂ (15th),Â social progressÂ (18th), andÂ prosperityÂ (26th). A member of theÂ United NationsÂ and theÂ European Union, Portugal was also one of the founding members ofÂ NATO, theÂ eurozone, theÂ OECD, and theÂ Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
The word Portugal derives from theÂ Roman–CelticÂ place nameÂ Portus Cale;Â a city where present-dayÂ Vila Nova de GaiaÂ now stands, at the mouth of theÂ River DouroÂ in the north of what is now Portugal. The name of the city is from the Latin word forÂ portÂ or harbor,Â portus, but the second element ofÂ Portus CaleÂ is the subject of numerous theories. The mainstream explanation for the name is that it is anÂ ethnonymÂ derived from theÂ Castro people, also known as theÂ Callaeci, Gallaeci or Gallaecia, a people who occupied the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. The namesÂ cactusiÂ andÂ CaleÂ are the origin of today’sÂ GaiaÂ andÂ Galicia.
Another romantic theory has it that Cala was the name of a Celtic goddess (drawing a comparison with theÂ GaelicÂ CailleachÂ a supernatural hag). A further theory is thatÂ CaleÂ orÂ CalleÂ is a derivation of the Celtic word for port, like theÂ IrishÂ calledÂ orÂ Scottish GaelicÂ call. These explanations, however, would require the pre-Roman language of the area to have been a branch of Q-Celtic, which is not generally accepted. The region’s pre-Roman language was Gallaecian Celtic.
Some French scholars believe the name may have come from ‘Portus Gallus’,Â the port of the Gauls or Celts.
Around 200 BC, the Romans took theÂ Iberian PeninsulaÂ from theÂ CarthaginiansÂ during theÂ Second Punic War, and in the process conquered Cale renaming itÂ Portus CaleÂ (Port of Cale) incorporating it to the province ofÂ GaelliciaÂ with capital inÂ Bracara AugustaÂ (modern dayÂ Braga, Portugal). During theÂ Middle Ages, the region aroundÂ Portus CaleÂ became known by theÂ SuebiÂ andÂ VisigothsÂ asÂ Portucale. The nameÂ PortucaleÂ evolved intoÂ PortugaleÂ during the 7th and 8th centuries, and by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the riversÂ DouroÂ andÂ Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries,Â Portugale,Â Portugallia, Portvgallo orÂ PortvgalliaeÂ was already referred to asÂ Portugal.
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The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of theÂ Iberian PeninsulaÂ located in South Western Europe.Â The name of PortugalÂ derives from the joined Romano-Celtic nameÂ Portus Cale. The region wasÂ settledÂ by Pre-CeltsÂ and Celts, giving origin to peoples like theÂ Gallaeci,Â Lusitanians,Â CelticiÂ andÂ Cynetes, visited byÂ Phoenicians,Â Ancient GreeksÂ andÂ Carthaginians, incorporated in theÂ Roman RepublicÂ dominions asÂ LusitaniaÂ and part ofÂ Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD.
The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited byÂ NeanderthalsÂ and then byÂ Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula.Â These were subsistence societies and although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing.
It is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves ofÂ CeltsÂ invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, formingÂ different tribes. Another theory suggests that Celts inhabited Western Iberia / Portugal well before any large Celtic migrations fromÂ Central Europe.Â In addition, a number of linguists expert in ancient Celtic have presented compelling evidence that theÂ Tartessian language, once spoken in parts of SW Spain and SW Portugal, is at least proto-Celtic in structure. Modern archeology and research shows a Portuguese root to theÂ CeltsÂ in Portugal and elsewhere.Â During that period and until the Roman invasions, the Castro culture (a variation of theÂ Urnfield cultureÂ also known asÂ Urnenfelderkultur) was prolific in Portugal and modern Galicia.Â This culture, together with the surviving elements of the Atlantic megalithic culture and the contributions that come from the more Western Mediterranean cultures, ended up in what has been called the Cultura Castreja orÂ Castro Culture. This designation refers to the characteristic Celtic populations called ‘dÃ¹n’, ‘dÃ¹in’ or ‘don’ inÂ GaelicÂ and that the Romans called castrae in their chronicles.
Based on the Roman chronicles about theÂ CallaeciÂ peoples, along with theÂ Lebor GabÃ¡la Ã‰rennÂ narrations and the interpretation of the abundant archaeological remains throughout the northern half of Portugal and Galicia, it is possible to infer that there was a matriarchal society, with a military and religious aristocracy probably of the feudal type. The figures of maximum authority were the chieftain (chefe tribal), of military type and with authority in his Castro or clan, and the druid, mainly referring to medical and religious functions that could be common to several castros. The Celtic cosmogony remained homogeneous due to the ability of theÂ druidsÂ to meet in councils with the druids of other areas, which ensured the transmission of knowledge and the most significant events. The first documentary references to Castro society are provided by chroniclers of Roman military campaigns such asÂ Strabo,Â HerodotusÂ andÂ Pliny the ElderÂ among others, about the social organization, and describing the inhabitants of these territories, theÂ Gallaeci of Northern PortugalÂ as: “A group of barbarians who spend the day fighting and the night eating, drinking and dancing under the moon.”
There were other similar tribes, and chief among them were theÂ Lusitanians; the core area of these people lay in inland central Portugal, while numerous other related tribes existed such as theÂ Celtici of Alentejo, and theÂ Cynetes or Conii of the Algarve. Among the tribes or sub-divisions were theÂ Bracari,Â Coelerni,Â Equaesi,Â Grovii,Â Interamici,Â Leuni,Â Luanqui,Â Limici,Â Narbasi,Â Nemetati,Â Paesuri,Â Quaquerni,Â Seurbi,Â Tamagani,Â Tapoli,Â Turduli,Â Turduli Veteres,Â Turdulorum Oppida,Â Turodi, andÂ Zoelae. A few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements (such asÂ Tavira) were also founded in theÂ AlgarveÂ region byÂ Phoeniciansâ€“Carthaginians.
Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia
Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC. The Carthaginians, Rome’s adversary in theÂ Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies. During the last days ofÂ Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula was annexed to theÂ Roman Republic.
The Roman conquest of what is now part of Portugal took almost two hundred years and took many lives of young soldiers and the lives of those who were sentenced to a certain death in the slave mines when not sold as slaves to other parts of the empire. It suffered a severe setback in 155 BC, when aÂ rebellionÂ began in the north. TheÂ LusitaniansÂ and other native tribes, under the leadership ofÂ Viriathus, wrested control of all of western Iberia.
Rome sent numerous legions and its best generals to Lusitania to quell the rebellion, but to no avail â€“ the Lusitanians kept conquering territory. The Roman leaders decided to change their strategy. They bribed Viriathus’s allies to kill him. In 139 BC, Viriathus was assassinated andÂ TautalusÂ became leader of the Lusitanians.
Rome installed a colonial regime. The complete Romanization of Lusitania only took place in theÂ VisigothicÂ era.
In 27 BC, Lusitania gained the status ofÂ Roman province. Later, a northern province of Lusitania was formed, known asÂ Gallaecia, with capital in Bracara Augusta, today’sÂ Braga. There are still many ruins of castros (hill forts) throughout modern Portugal and remains of theÂ Castro culture. Some urban remains are quite large, likeÂ ConÃmbrigaÂ andÂ Mirobriga. The former, beyond being one of the largestÂ RomanÂ settlements in Portugal, is also classified as aÂ National Monument. ConÃmbriga lies 16 kilometres (9.9 miles) fromÂ Coimbra, which in turn was the ancientÂ Aeminium. The site also has a museum that displays objects found by archaeologists during their excavations.
Several works of engineering, such as baths, temples, bridges, roads, circuses, theatres and laymen’s homes are preserved throughout the country. Coins, some coined in Lusitanian land, as well as numerous pieces of ceramics, were also found. Contemporary historians includeÂ Paulus OrosiusÂ (c. 375â€“418)Â andÂ HydatiusÂ (c. 400â€“469), bishop ofÂ Aquae Flaviae, who reported on the final years of the Roman rule and arrival of theÂ Germanic tribes.
Germanic kingdoms: Suebi and Visigoths
In the early 5th century,Â Germanic tribes, namely theÂ SuebiÂ and theÂ VandalsÂ (SilingiÂ andÂ Hasdingi) together with their allies, theÂ SarmatiansÂ andÂ AlansÂ invaded theÂ Iberian PeninsulaÂ where they would form their kingdom. TheÂ Kingdom of the SuebiÂ was the Germanic post-Roman kingdom, established in the former Roman provinces ofÂ Gallaecia–Lusitania. 5th-century vestiges ofÂ AlanÂ settlements were found inÂ AlenquerÂ (from old GermanicÂ Alan kerk,Â temple of the Alans),Â CoimbraÂ and Lisbon.
About 410 and during the 6th century it became a formally declaredÂ Kingdom of the Suebi, where kingÂ HermericÂ made a peace treaty with the Gallaecians before passing his domains toÂ Rechila, his son. In 448 Rechila died, leaving the state in expansion toÂ Rechiar. After the defeat against the Visigoths, the Suebian kingdom was divided, with Frantan and Aguiulfo ruling simultaneously. Both reigned from 456 to 457, the year in which Maldras (457â€“459) reunified the kingdom to finish being assassinated after a failed Roman-Visigothic conspiracy. Although the conspiracy did not achieve its true purposes, the Suebian Kingdom was again divided between two kings:Â FrumarÂ (Frumario 459â€“463) andÂ RemismundÂ (Remismundo, son ofÂ Maldras) (459â€“469) who would re-reunify his father’s kingdom in 463 and that he would be forced to adoptÂ ArianismÂ in 465 due to the Visigoth influence. By the year 500, theÂ Visigothic KingdomÂ had been installed in Iberia, it was based inÂ ToledoÂ and advancing westwards. They became a threat to the Suebian rule. After the death of Remismund in 469 a dark period set in, where virtually all written texts and accounts disappear. This period lasted until 550. The only thing known about this period is thatÂ TheodemundÂ (Teodemundo) most probably ruled the Suebians. The dark period ended with the reign of Karriarico (550â€“559) who reinstalledÂ Catholic ChristianityÂ in 550. He was succeed byÂ TheodemarÂ or Theodemir (Teodomiro 559â€“570) during whose reign the 1st Council of Braga (561) was held.
The councils represented an advance in the organization of the territory (paroeciam suevorum (Suebian parish) and theÂ ChristianizationÂ of the pagan population (De correctione rusticorum) under the auspices ofÂ Saint Martin of BragaÂ (SÃ£o Martinho de Braga).
After the death of Teodomiro,Â MiroÂ (570â€“583) was his successor. During his reign, the 2nd Council of Braga (572) was held. The Visigothic civil war began in 577. Miro intervened. Later in 583 he also organized an unsuccessful expedition to reconquer Seville. During the return from this failed operation Miro died.
In the Suebian Kingdom many internal struggles continued to take place.Â EboricoÂ (Eurico, 583â€“584) was dethroned byÂ AndecaÂ (Audeca 584â€“585), who failed to prevent the Visigothic invasion led by Leovigildo. The Visigothic invasion, completed in 585, turned the once rich and fertile kingdom of the Suebi into the sixth province of the Gothic kingdom.Â LeovigildÂ was crowned King of Gallaecia, Hispania and Gallia Narbonensis.
For the next 300 years and by the year 700, the entire Iberian Peninsula was ruled by the Visigoths. Under theÂ Visigoths, Gallaecia was a well-defined space governed by a doge of its own. Doges at this time were related to the monarchy acted as princes in all matters. Both ‘governors’Â WambaÂ andÂ WittizaÂ (Vitiza) acted as doge (they would later become kings in Toledo). These two became known as the ‘vitizians’, who headquartered in the northwest and called on the Arab invaders from the South to be their allies in the struggle for power in 711. KingÂ RodericÂ (Rodrigo) was killed while opposing this invasion, thus becoming the last Visigothic king of Iberia. From the various Germanic groups who settled in Western Iberia, theÂ SuebiÂ left the strongest lasting cultural legacy in what is today Portugal, Galicia and western fringes of Asturias.Â According to Dan Stanislawski, the Portuguese way of living in regions North of the Tagus is mostly inherited from the Suebi, in which small farms prevail, distinct from the large properties of Southern Portugal. Bracara Augusta, the modern city ofÂ BragaÂ and former capital ofÂ Gallaecia, became the capital of the Suebi. Apart from cultural and some linguistic traces, the Suebians left the highest Germanic genetic contribution of the Iberian Peninsula in Portugal and Galicia.Â Orosius, at that time resident in Hispania, shows a rather pacific initial settlement, the newcomers working their landsÂ or serving as bodyguards of the locals.Â Another Germanic group that accompanied the Suebi and settled in Gallaecia were theÂ Buri. They settled in the region between the riversÂ CÃ¡vadoÂ andÂ Homem, in the area known asÂ Terras de BouroÂ (Lands of the Buri).
Islamic period and the Reconquista
Today’s continental Portugal, along with most of modern Spain, was part ofÂ al-AndalusÂ between 726 and 1249, following theÂ Umayyad CaliphateÂ conquest of theÂ Iberian Peninsula. This rule lasted from some decades in the North to five centuries in the South.
After defeating theÂ VisigothsÂ in only a few months, the Umayyad Caliphate started expanding rapidly in the peninsula. Beginning in 726, the land that is now Portugal became part of the vast Umayyad Caliphate’s empire ofÂ Damascus, which stretched from theÂ IndusÂ river in the Indian sub-continent up to the South of France, until its collapse in 750. That year the west of the empire gained its independence underÂ Abd-ar-Rahman IÂ with the establishment of theÂ Emirate of CÃ³rdoba. After almost two centuries, the Emirate became theÂ Caliphate of CÃ³rdobaÂ in 929, until its dissolution a century later in 1031 into no less than 23 small kingdoms, calledÂ TaifaÂ kingdoms.
The governors of the taifas each proclaimed themselvesÂ EmirÂ of their provinces and established diplomatic relations with the Christian kingdoms of the north. Most of present-day Portugal fell into the hands of theÂ Taifa of BadajozÂ of theÂ Aftasid Dynasty, and after a short spell of an ephemeralÂ Taifa of LisbonÂ in 1022, fell under the dominion of theÂ Taifa of SevilleÂ of theÂ AbbadidsÂ poets. The Taifa period ended with the conquest of theÂ AlmoravidsÂ who came fromÂ MoroccoÂ in 1086 winning a decisive victory at theÂ Battle of Sagrajas, followed a century later in 1147, after the second period of Taifa, by theÂ Almohads, also fromÂ Marrakesh.Â Al-Andaluz was divided into different districts calledÂ Kura. Gharb Al-Andalus at its largest was constituted of ten kuras,Â each with a distinct capital and governor. The main cities of the period in Portugal were in the southern half of the country:Â Beja,Â Silves,Â AlcÃ¡cer do Sal,Â SantarÃ©mÂ andÂ Lisbon. The Muslim population of the region consisted mainly of native Iberian converts toÂ IslamÂ (the so-calledÂ MuwalladÂ orÂ Muladi) and berbers. The Arabs were principally noblemen fromÂ SyriaÂ andÂ Oman; and though few in numbers, they constituted the elite of the population. TheÂ BerbersÂ were originally from theÂ Atlas mountainsÂ andÂ RifÂ mountains of North Africa and were nomads.
County of Portugal
An Asturian Visigothic noble namedÂ Pelagius of AsturiasÂ in 718 was elected leaderÂ by many of the oustedÂ VisigothÂ nobles. Pelagius called for the remnant of the Christian Visigothic armies to rebel against the Moors and regroup in the unconquered northern Asturian highlands, better known today as theÂ Cantabrian Mountains, in what is today the small mountain region in North-westernÂ Spain, adjacent to theÂ Bay of Biscay.
Pelagius’ plan was to use the Cantabrian mountains as a place of refuge and protection from the invading Moors. He then aimed to regroup the Iberian Peninsula’s Christian armies and use the Cantabrian mountains as a springboard from which to regain their lands. In the process, after defeating the Moors in theÂ Battle of CovadongaÂ in 722, Pelagius was proclaimed king, thus founding the ChristianÂ Kingdom of AsturiasÂ and starting the war of Christian reconquest known inÂ PortugueseÂ as theÂ Reconquista CristÃ£.
At the end of the 9th century, the region of Portugal, between the rivers Minho and Douro, was reconquered from the Moors by the nobleman and knightÂ VÃmara PeresÂ (this old name corresponds to today’s given name GuÃmaro, believed to derive from ‘Weimar’Â Â a name from any of several places called Weimar in Hesse and Thuringia, from Old High German wÄ«h “holy” and mari “standing water”) on the orders of KingÂ Alfonso III of Asturias. Finding that the region had previously had two major cities â€“Â Portus CaleÂ in the coast andÂ BragaÂ in the interior, with many towns that were now deserted â€“ he decided to repopulate and rebuild them with Portuguese and Galician refugees and other Christians.Â Apart from the Arabs from the South, the coastal regions in the North were also attacked byÂ NormanÂ andÂ VikingÂ raiders mainly from 844. The last great invasion, through theÂ Minho (river), ended with the defeat ofÂ Olaf II HaraldssonÂ in 1014 against the Galician nobility who also stopped further advances into the County of Portugal.
VÃmara Peres organized the region he had reconquered, and elevated it to the status ofÂ County, naming it theÂ County of PortugalÂ after the region’s major port city â€“Â Portus CaleÂ or modernÂ Porto. One of the first cities Vimara Peres founded at this time is Vimaranes, known today asÂ GuimarÃ£esÂ â€“ the “birthplace of the Portuguese nation” or the “cradle city” (Cidade BerÃ§o in Portuguese).
After annexing the County of Portugal into one of the several counties that made up theÂ Kingdom of Asturias, KingÂ Alfonso III of AsturiasÂ knighted VÃmara Peres, in 868, as the First Count of Portus Cale (Portugal). The region became known asÂ Portucale,Â Portugale, and simultaneouslyÂ PortugÃ¡liaÂ â€“ theÂ County of Portugal.
Later the Kingdom of Asturias was divided into a number of Christian Kingdoms in Northern Iberia due to dynastic divisions of inheritance among the king’s offspring. With the forced abdication ofÂ Alfonso III “the Great” of AsturiasÂ by his sons in 910, the Kingdom of Asturias split into three separate kingdoms. The three kingdoms were eventually reunited in 924 under the crown ofÂ LeÃ³n.
In 1093,Â Alfonso VI of LeÃ³nÂ bestowed the county toÂ Henry of BurgundyÂ and married him to his daughter,Â Teresa of LeÃ³n, for his role in reconquering the land from Moors. Henry based his newly formed county in Bracara Augusta (modernÂ Braga), capital city of the ancient Roman province, and also previous capital of several kingdoms over the first millennia.
On 24 June 1128, theÂ Battle of SÃ£o MamedeÂ occurred nearÂ GuimarÃ£es.Â Afonso Henriques, Count of Portugal, defeated his motherÂ Countess TeresaÂ and her loverÂ FernÃ£o Peres de Trava, thereby establishing himself as sole leader. Afonso then turned his arms against the Moors in the south.
Afonso’s campaigns were successful and, on 25 July 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in theÂ Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimedÂ King of PortugalÂ by his soldiers. This is traditionally taken as the occasion when the County of Portugal, as a fief of the Kingdom of LeÃ³n, was transformed into the independentÂ Kingdom of Portugal.
Afonso then established the first of theÂ Portuguese CortesÂ atÂ Lamego, where he was crowned by the Archbishop of Braga, though the validity of the Cortes of Lamego has been disputed and called a myth created during theÂ Portuguese Restoration War. Afonso was recognized in 1143 by KingÂ Alfonso VII of LeÃ³n, and in 1179 byÂ Pope Alexander III.
During theÂ ReconquistaÂ period, Christians reconquered the Iberian Peninsula fromÂ MoorishÂ domination. Afonso Henriques and his successors, aided by militaryÂ monastic orders, pushed southward to drive out the Moors. At this time, Portugal covered about half of its present area. In 1249, the Reconquista ended with the capture of theÂ AlgarveÂ and complete expulsion of the last Moorish settlements on the southern coast, giving Portugal its present-day borders, with minor exceptions.
In one of these situations of conflict with theÂ kingdom of Castile,Â Dinis I of PortugalÂ signed with the kingÂ Fernando IV of CastileÂ (who was represented, when a minor, by his mother the queenÂ Maria de Molina) theÂ Treaty of AlcaÃ±ices (1297), which stipulated that Portugal abolished agreed treaties against the kingdom of Castile for supporting the infantÂ Juan de Castilla. This treaty established among other things the border demarcation between the kingdom of Portugal and the kingdom of Leon, where the disputed town ofÂ OlivenzaÂ was included.
In 1348 and 1349 Portugal, like the rest of Europe, was devastated by theÂ Black Death.Â In 1373, Portugal made anÂ alliance with England, which is the longest-standing alliance in the world. Over time, this went far beyond geo-political and military cooperation (protecting both nations’ interests in Africa, the Americas and Asia against French, Spanish and Dutch rivals) and maintained strong trade and cultural ties between the two old European allies. In theÂ OportoÂ region, in particular, there is visible English influence to this day.
Joanine era and Age of Discoveries
In 1383,Â John I of Castile, husband ofÂ Beatrice of PortugalÂ and son-in-law ofÂ Ferdinand I of Portugal, claimed the throne of Portugal. A faction of petty noblemen and commoners, led byÂ John of AvizÂ (later King John I of Portugal) and commanded by GeneralÂ Nuno Ãlvares PereiraÂ defeated the Castilians in theÂ Battle of Aljubarrota. With this battle, theÂ House of AvizÂ became the ruling house of Portugal.
Portugal spearheaded European exploration of the world and theÂ Age of Discovery. PrinceÂ Henry the Navigator, son of KingÂ John I of Portugal, became the main sponsor and patron of this endeavour. During this period, Portugal explored theÂ Atlantic Ocean, discovering the Atlantic archipelagos theÂ Azores,Â Madeira, andÂ Cape Verde; explored the African coast; colonized selected areas of Africa; discovered an easternÂ route to IndiaÂ via theÂ Cape of Good Hope;Â discovered Brazil, explored theÂ Indian Ocean, established trading routes throughout most of southern Asia; and sent the first direct European maritime trade and diplomatic missions toÂ ChinaÂ andÂ Japan.
In 1415, Portugal acquired the first of its overseas colonies by conqueringÂ Ceuta, the first prosperous Islamic trade centre in North Africa. There followed the first discoveries in the Atlantic:Â MadeiraÂ and theÂ Azores, which led to the firstÂ colonizationÂ movements.
Throughout the 15th century,Â Portuguese explorersÂ sailed the coast of Africa, establishing trading posts forÂ several common types of tradable commodities at the time, ranging fromÂ goldÂ toÂ slaves, as they looked for a route to India and itsÂ spices, which were coveted in Europe.
TheÂ Treaty of Tordesillas, intended to resolve the dispute that had been created following the return ofÂ Christopher Columbus, was made byÂ Pope Alexander VI, the mediator between Portugal and Spain. It was signed on 7 June 1494, and divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the two countries along a meridian 370 leagues west of theÂ Cape VerdeÂ islands (off the west coast of Africa).
In 1498,Â Vasco da GamaÂ accomplished whatÂ ColumbusÂ set out for and became the first European to reachÂ IndiaÂ by sea, bringingÂ economic prosperity to PortugalÂ and its population of 1.7Â million residents, and helping to start theÂ Portuguese Renaissance. In 1500, the Portuguese explorerÂ Gaspar Corte-RealÂ reached what is nowÂ CanadaÂ and founded the town ofÂ Portugal Cove-St. Philip’s,Â Newfoundland and Labrador, long before the French and English in the 17th century, and being just one of manyÂ Portuguese colonizations of the Americas.
In 1500,Â Pedro Ãlvares CabralÂ discoveredÂ BrazilÂ and claimed it for Portugal.Â Ten years later,Â Afonso de AlbuquerqueÂ conqueredÂ GoaÂ in India,Â MuscatÂ andÂ OrmuzÂ in theÂ Persian Strait, andÂ Malacca, now aÂ stateÂ in Malaysia. Thus, the Portuguese empire held dominion over commerce in theÂ Indian OceanÂ and South Atlantic. Portuguese sailors set out to reach Eastern Asia by sailing eastward from Europe, landing in such places as Taiwan, Japan, the island ofÂ Timor, and in theÂ Moluccas.
Although for a long period it was believed theÂ DutchÂ were the first Europeans to arrive in Australia, there is also some evidence that theÂ Portuguese may have discovered AustraliaÂ in 1521.Â From 1519 to 1522,Â Ferdinand MagellanÂ (FernÃ£o de MagalhÃ£es) organized a Spanish expedition to theÂ East IndiesÂ which resulted in the firstÂ circumnavigationÂ of the globe. Magellan never made it back to Europe as he was murdered by natives in theÂ PhilippinesÂ in 1521.
TheÂ Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 22 April 1529 between Portugal and Spain, specified the anti-meridian to the line of demarcation specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas.
All these factors made Portugal one of the world’s major economic, military, and political powers from the 15th century until the late 16th century.
Iberian Union, Restoration and early Brigantine era
Portugal voluntarily entered a dynastic union between 1580 and 1640. This occurred because the last two kings of theÂ House of AvizÂ â€“ KingÂ Sebastian, who died in theÂ battle of AlcÃ¡cer QuibirÂ inÂ Morocco, and his great-uncle and successor, King-CardinalÂ Henry of PortugalÂ â€“ both died without heirs, resulting in theÂ Portuguese succession crisis of 1580.
Subsequently,Â Philip II of SpainÂ claimed the throne and was accepted as Philip I of Portugal. Portugal did not lose its formal independence, briefly forming aÂ unionÂ of kingdoms. At this time Spain was aÂ geographic territory.Â The joining of the two crowns deprived Portugal of an independent foreign policy and led to its involvement in theÂ Eighty Years’ WarÂ between Spain and theÂ Netherlands.
War led to a deterioration of the relations withÂ Portugal’s oldest ally, England, and the loss ofÂ Hormuz, a strategic trading post located betweenÂ IranÂ andÂ Oman. From 1595 to 1663 theÂ Dutch-Portuguese WarÂ primarily involved the Dutch companies invading many PortugueseÂ coloniesÂ and commercial interests in Brazil, Africa, India and the Far East, resulting in the loss of the Portuguese Indian sea trade monopoly. In 1640,Â John IV of PortugalÂ spearheaded an uprising backed by disgruntled nobles and was proclaimed king. TheÂ Portuguese Restoration WarÂ ended the sixty-year period of theÂ Iberian UnionÂ under theÂ House of Habsburg. This was the beginning of theÂ House of Braganza, which reigned in Portugal until 1910.
King John IV’s eldest son came to reign asÂ Afonso VI, however his physical and mental disabilities left him overpowered byÂ LuÃs de Vasconcelos e Sousa, 3rd Count of Castelo Melhor. In a palace coup organized by the King’s wife,Â Maria Francisca of Savoy, and his brother,Â Pedro, Duke of Beja, King Afonso VI was declared mentally incompetent and exiled first to the Azores and then to theÂ Royal Palace of Sintra, outside Lisbon. After Afonso’s death, Pedro came to the throne as King Pedro II. Pedro’s reign saw the consolidation of national independence, imperial expansion, and investment in domestic production.
Pedro II’s son,Â John V, saw a reign characterized by the influx of gold into the coffers of the royal treasury, supplied largely by theÂ royal fifthÂ (a tax on precious metals) that was received from theÂ Portuguese coloniesÂ ofÂ BrazilÂ andÂ MaranhÃ£o.
Disregarding traditional Portuguese institutions of governance, John V acted as an absolute monarch, nearly depleting the country’s tax revenues on ambitious architectural works, most notablyÂ Mafra Palace, and on commissions and additions for his sizeable art and literary collections.
Owing to his craving for international diplomatic recognition, John also spent large sums on the embassies he sent to the courts of Europe, the most famous being those he sent toÂ ParisÂ in 1715 andÂ RomeÂ in 1716.
Official estimatesÂ â€“ and most estimates made so farÂ â€“ place the number of Portuguese migrants toÂ Colonial BrazilÂ during the gold rush of the 18th century at 600,000.Â This represented one of the largest movements of European populations to their colonies in the Americas during colonial times.
Pombaline era and Enlightenment
In 1738,Â SebastiÃ£o JosÃ© de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, began a diplomatic career as the Portuguese Ambassador in London and later in Vienna. TheÂ Queen consortÂ of Portugal,Â Archduchess Maria Anne Josefa of Austria, was fond of Melo; and after his first wife died, she arranged the widowed de Melo’s second marriage to the daughter of the Austrian Field MarshalÂ Leopold Josef, Count von Daun. KingÂ John V of Portugal, however, was not pleased and recalled Melo to Portugal in 1749. John V died the following year and his son, Joseph I of Portugal, was crowned. In contrast to his father, Joseph I was fond of de Melo, and with theÂ Queen Mother‘s approval, he appointed Melo asÂ MinisterÂ of Foreign Affairs.
As the King’s confidence in de Melo increased, the King entrusted him with more control of the state. By 1755, SebastiÃ£o de Melo was made Prime Minister. Impressed by British economic success that he had witnessed from his time as an Ambassador, he successfully implemented similarÂ economicÂ policies in Portugal. He abolished slavery in Portugal and in the Portuguese colonies in India, reorganized the army and the navy, restructured theÂ University of Coimbra, and ended discrimination against differentÂ ChristianÂ sects in Portugal.
SebastiÃ£o de Melo’s greatest reforms were economic and financial, with the creation of several companies and guilds to regulate every commercial activity. He demarcated the region for production ofÂ PortÂ to ensure the wine’s quality, and this was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe. He ruled with a strong hand by imposing strict law upon all classes of Portuguese society from the high nobility to the poorest working class, along with a widespread review of the country’s tax system. These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes, especially among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart.
Disaster fell upon Portugal in the morning of 1 November 1755, whenÂ LisbonÂ was struck byÂ a violent earthquakeÂ with an estimatedÂ moment magnitudeÂ of 8.5â€“9. The city was razed to the ground by the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami and ensuing fires.Â SebastiÃ£o de Melo survived by a stroke of luck and then immediately embarked on rebuilding the city, with his famous quote: “What now? We bury the dead and take care of the living.”
Despite the calamity and hugeÂ death toll, Lisbon suffered no epidemics and within less than one year was already being rebuilt. The new city centre of Lisbon was designed to resist subsequent earthquakes. Architectural models were built for tests, and the effects of an earthquake were simulated by marching troops around the models. The buildings and big squares of the Pombaline City Centre still remain as one of Lisbon’s tourist attractions. SebastiÃ£o de Melo also made an important contribution to the study ofÂ seismologyÂ by designing an inquiry that was sent to every parish in the country.
Following the earthquake,Â Joseph IÂ gave his Prime Minister even more power, and SebastiÃ£o de Melo became a powerful, progressive dictator. As his power grew, his enemies increased in number, and bitter disputes with the high nobility became frequent. In 1758 Joseph I was wounded in an attempted assassination. TheÂ TÃ¡vora familyÂ and theÂ Duke of AveiroÂ were implicated and executed after a quick trial. TheÂ JesuitsÂ were expelled from the country and their assets confiscated by the crown. SebastiÃ£o de Melo prosecuted every person involved, even women and children. This was the final stroke that broke the power of the aristocracy. Joseph I made his loyal minister Count ofÂ OeirasÂ in 1759.
Following the TÃ¡vora affair, the new Count of Oeiras knew no opposition. Made “Marquis of Pombal” in 1770, he effectively ruled Portugal until Joseph I’s death in 1779.
The new ruler, QueenÂ Maria I of Portugal, disliked the Marquis because of the power he amassed, and never forgave him for the ruthlessness with which he dispatched the TÃ¡vora family, and upon her accession to the throne, she withdrew all his political offices. The Marquis of Pombal died on his estate atÂ PombalÂ in 1782.
However, historians also argue that Pombal’s “enlightenment,” while far-reaching, was primarily a mechanism for enhancing autocracy at the expense of individual liberty and especially an apparatus for crushing opposition, suppressing criticism, and furthering colonial economic exploitation as well as intensifying book censorship and consolidating personal control and profit.
With the occupation by Napoleon, Portugal began a slow but inexorable decline that lasted until the 20th century. This decline was hastened by theÂ independence of Brazil, the country’s largest colonial possession.
In the autumn of 1807,Â NapoleonÂ moved French troops through Spain to invade Portugal. From 1807 to 1811, British-Portuguese forces would successfully fight against the French invasion of Portugal in theÂ Peninsular War, during which the royal family and the PortugueseÂ nobility, including Maria I, relocated to theÂ Portuguese territory of Brazil, at that time a colony of theÂ Portuguese Empire, in South America. This episode is known as theÂ Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil.
In 1807, as Napoleon’s army closed in on Lisbon,Â JoÃ£o VI of Portugal, theÂ Prince Regent, transferred his court to Brazil and establishedÂ Rio de JaneiroÂ as the capital of the Portuguese Empire. In 1815, Brazil was declared a Kingdom and the Kingdom of Portugal was united with it, forming a pluricontinental state, theÂ United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
As a result of the change in its status and the arrival of the Portuguese royal family, Brazilian administrative, civic,Â economical, military,Â educational, andÂ scientificÂ apparatus were expanded and highly modernized. Portuguese and their allied British troops fought against theÂ French Invasion of PortugalÂ and by 1815 the situation in Europe had cooled down sufficiently that JoÃ£o VI would have been able to return safely to Lisbon. However, the King of Portugal remained in Brazil until theÂ Liberal Revolution of 1820, which started inÂ Porto, demanded his return to Lisbon in 1821.
Thus he returned to Portugal but left his sonÂ PedroÂ in charge of Brazil. When the Portuguese Government attempted the following year to return the Kingdom of Brazil to subordinate status, his son Pedro, with the overwhelming support of the Brazilian elites, declaredÂ Brazil’s independenceÂ from Portugal.Â CisplatinaÂ (today’s sovereign state of Uruguay), in the south, was one of the last additions to the territory of Brazil under Portuguese rule.
Brazilian independence was recognized in 1825, whereby Emperor Pedro I granted to his father the titular honour ofÂ Emperor of Brazil. John VI’s death in 1826 caused serious questions in his succession. Though Pedro was his heir, and reigned briefly as Pedro IV, his status as a Brazilian monarch was seen as an impediment to holding the Portuguese throne by both nations. Pedro abdicated in favour of his daughter,Â Maria IIÂ (Mary II). However, Pedro’s brother,Â Infante Miguel, claimed the throne in protest. After a proposal for Miguel and Maria to marry failed, Miguel seized power as King Miguel I, in 1828. In order to defend his daughter’s rights to the throne, Pedro launched theÂ Liberal WarsÂ to reinstall his daughter and establish a constitutional monarchy in Portugal. The war ended in 1834, with Miguel’s defeat, the promulgation of a constitution, and the reinstatement of Queen Maria II.
Queen Maria II (Mary II) and KingÂ Ferdinand II‘s son, KingÂ Pedro VÂ (Peter V) modernized the country during his short reign (1853â€“1861). Under his reign, roads, telegraphs, and railways were constructed and improvements in public health advanced. His popularity increased when, during theÂ choleraÂ outbreak of 1853â€“1856, he visited hospitals handing out gifts and comforting the sick. Pedro’s reign was short, as he died of cholera in 1861, after a series of deaths in the royal family, including his two brothersÂ Infante FernandoÂ andÂ Infante JoÃ£o, Duke of Beja, and his wife,Â Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Pedro not having children, his brother,Â LuÃs I of PortugalÂ (Louis I) ascended the throne and continued his modernization.
At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had already lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia.Â Luanda,Â Benguela,Â Bissau,Â LourenÃ§o Marques,Â Porto AmboimÂ and theÂ Island of MozambiqueÂ were among the oldest Portuguese-founded port cities in its African territories. During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there.
With theÂ Conference of BerlinÂ of 1884, Portuguese territories in Africa had their borders formally established on request of Portugal in order to protect the centuries-long Portuguese interests in the continent from rivalries enticed by theÂ Scramble for Africa. Portuguese towns and cities in Africa likeÂ Nova Lisboa,Â SÃ¡ da Bandeira,Â Silva Porto,Â Malanje,Â Tete,Â Vila Junqueiro,Â Vila PeryÂ andÂ Vila CabralÂ were founded or redeveloped inland during this period and beyond. New coastal towns likeÂ Beira,Â MoÃ§Ã¢medes,Â Lobito,Â JoÃ£o Belo,Â NacalaÂ andÂ Porto AmÃ©liaÂ were also founded. Even before the turn of the 20th century, railway tracks as theÂ Benguela railwayÂ in Angola, and theÂ Beira railwayÂ in Mozambique, started to be built to link coastal areas and selected inland regions.
Other episodes during this period of the Portuguese presence in Africa include theÂ 1890 British Ultimatum. This forced the Portuguese military to retreat from the land between the Portuguese colonies ofÂ MozambiqueÂ andÂ AngolaÂ (most of present-dayÂ ZimbabweÂ andÂ Zambia), which had been claimed by Portugal and included in its “Pink Map“, which clashed with British aspirations to create aÂ Cape to Cairo Railway.
The Portuguese territories in Africa wereÂ Cape Verde,Â SÃ£o TomÃ© and PrÃncipe,Â Portuguese Guinea,Â Angola, andÂ Mozambique. The tiny fortress ofÂ SÃ£o JoÃ£o Baptista de AjudÃ¡Â on the coast ofÂ Dahomey, was also under Portuguese rule. In addition, Portugal still ruled the Asian territories ofÂ Portuguese India,Â Portuguese TimorÂ andÂ Portuguese Macau.
On February 1, 1908, King DomÂ Carlos I of PortugalÂ and hisÂ heir apparentÂ and his eldest son,Â Prince Royal Dom LuÃs Filipe,Â Duke of Braganza,Â were assassinated in LisbonÂ in theÂ Terreiro do PaÃ§oÂ by two Portuguese republican activist revolutionaries,Â Alfredo LuÃs da CostaÂ andÂ Manuel BuÃÃ§a. Under his rule, Portugal had been declaredÂ bankruptÂ twice â€“ first on June 14, 1892, and then again on May 10, 1902Â â€“ causing social turmoil, economic disturbances, angry protests, revolts and criticism of the monarchy. His second and youngest son,Â Manuel II of Portugal, became the new king, but was eventually overthrown by theÂ 5 October 1910 Portuguese republican revolution, which abolished the monarchy and installed aÂ republicanÂ government in Portugal, causing him and his royal family to flee intoÂ exileÂ inÂ London,Â England.
First Republic and Estado Novo
The new republic had many problems. Portugal had 45 different governments in just 15 years. DuringÂ World War 1Â (1914â€“1918), Portugal helped theÂ AlliesÂ fight theÂ Central Powers. But the war hurt its weak economy. Political instability and economic weaknesses were fertile ground for chaos and unrest during theÂ Portuguese First Republic. These conditions would lead to the failedÂ Monarchy of the North,Â 28 May 1926 coup d’Ã©tat, and the creation of the National Dictatorship (Ditadura Nacional). This in turn led to the establishment of the right-wing dictatorship of theÂ Estado NovoÂ underÂ AntÃ³nio de Oliveira SalazarÂ in 1933.
Portugal remained neutral inÂ World War II. From the 1940s to the 1960s, Portugal was a founding member ofÂ NATO,Â OECDÂ and theÂ European Free Trade AssociationÂ (EFTA). Gradually, new economic development projects and relocation of mainland Portuguese citizens into the overseas provinces in Africa were initiated, withÂ AngolaÂ andÂ Mozambique, as the largest and richest overseas territories, being the main targets of those initiatives. These actions were used to affirm Portugal’s status as aÂ transcontinentalÂ nation and not as a colonial empire.
After India attained independence in 1947, pro-Indian residents ofÂ Dadra and Nagar Haveli, with the support of the Indian government and the help of pro-independence organisations, separated the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in 1954.Â In 1961,Â SÃ£o JoÃ£o Baptista de AjudÃ¡‘s annexation by theÂ Republic of DahomeyÂ was the start of a process that led to the final dissolution of the centuries-old Portuguese Empire.
According to the census of 1921 SÃ£o JoÃ£o Baptista de AjudÃ¡ had 5 inhabitants and, at the moment of the ultimatum by the Dahomey Government, it had only 2 inhabitants representing Portuguese Sovereignty.
Another forcible retreat from overseas territories occurred in December 1961 when Portugal refused to relinquish the territories ofÂ Goa,Â Daman and Diu. As a result, the Portuguese army and navy were involved in armed conflict in its colony ofÂ Portuguese IndiaÂ against theÂ Indian Armed Forces.
TheÂ operations resulted in the defeatÂ and surrender of the limited Portuguese defensive garrison, which was forced to surrender to a much larger military force. The outcome was the loss of the remaining Portuguese territories in theÂ Indian subcontinent. The Portuguese regime refused to recognize Indian sovereignty over the annexed territories, which continued to be represented in Portugal’s National Assembly until the military coup of 1974.
Throughout the colonial war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community. However, the authoritarian and conservativeÂ Estado NovoÂ regime, first installed and governed byÂ AntÃ³nio de Oliveira SalazarÂ and from 1968 onwards led byÂ Marcelo Caetano, tried to preserve a vast centuries-long intercontinental empire with a total area of 2,168,071Â km2.
Carnation Revolution and European integration
The Portuguese government and army resisted theÂ decolonizationÂ of its overseas territories until April 1974, when a bloodless left-wing militaryÂ coupÂ in Lisbon, known as theÂ Carnation Revolution, led the way for the independence of the overseas territories in Africa and Asia, as well as for the restoration of democracy after two years of a transitional period known as PREC (Processo RevolucionÃ¡rio Em Curso). This period was characterized by social turmoil and power disputes between left- and right-wing political forces. The retreat from the overseas territories and the acceptance of its independence terms by Portuguese head representatives for overseas negotiations, which would create independent states in 1975, prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal’s African territories (mostly from PortugueseÂ AngolaÂ andÂ Mozambique).
Over one millionÂ Portuguese refugeesÂ fled the former Portuguese provinces as white settlers were usually not considered part of the new identities of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia.Â MÃ¡rio SoaresÂ andÂ AntÃ³nio de Almeida SantosÂ were charged with organising the independence of Portugal’s overseas territories. By 1975, all the Portuguese African territories were independent and Portugal heldÂ its first democratic electionsÂ in 50 years.
Portugal continued to be governed by aÂ Junta de SalvaÃ§Ã£o NacionalÂ until theÂ Portuguese legislative election of 1976. It was won by theÂ Portuguese Socialist PartyÂ (PS) and MÃ¡rio Soares, its leader, became Prime Minister of the 1st Constitutional Government on 23 July. MÃ¡rio Soares would be Prime Minister from 1976 to 1978 and again from 1983 to 1985. In this capacity Soares tried to resume the economic growth and development record that had been achieved before the Carnation Revolution, during the last decade of the previous regime. He initiated the process of accession to theÂ European Economic CommunityÂ (EEC) by starting accession negotiations as early as 1977.
Portugal bounced betweenÂ socialismÂ and adherence to theÂ neoliberalÂ model.Â Land reformÂ andÂ nationalizationsÂ were enforced; theÂ Portuguese ConstitutionÂ (approved in 1976) was rewritten in order to accommodate socialist and communist principles. Until the constitutional revisions of 1982 and 1989, the constitution was a document with numerous references to socialism, the rights of workers, and the desirability of aÂ socialist economy. Portugal’s economic situation after its transition to democracy, obliged the government to pursueÂ International Monetary FundÂ (IMF)-monitored stabilization programs in 1977â€“78 and 1983â€“85.
In 1986, Portugal joined theÂ European Economic CommunityÂ (EEC) that later became the European Union (EU). In the following years Portugal’s economy progressed considerably as a result of EEC/EUÂ structural and cohesion fundsÂ and Portuguese companies’ easier access to foreign markets.
Portugal’s last overseas and Asian colonial territory,Â Macau, was peacefully handed over to theÂ People’s Republic of China (PRC)Â on December 20, 1999, under the 1987 joint declaration that set the terms for Macau’s handover from Portugal to the PRC. In 2002, the independence ofÂ East TimorÂ (Asia) was formally recognized by Portugal, after an incomplete decolonization process that was started in 1975 because of the Carnation Revolution, but interrupted by anÂ IndonesianÂ armed invasion andÂ occupation.
On 26 March 1995, Portugal started to implementÂ Schengen AreaÂ rules, eliminating border controls with other Schengen members while simultaneously strengthening border controls with non-member states. In 1996 the country was a co-founder of theÂ Community of Portuguese Language CountriesÂ (CPLP) headquartered in Lisbon. In 1996,Â Jorge SampaioÂ became president. He wonÂ re-electionÂ in January 2001.Â Expo ’98Â took place in Portugal and in 1999 it was one of the founding countries of theÂ euroÂ and theÂ eurozone. On July 5, 2004,Â JosÃ© Manuel Barroso, thenÂ Prime Minister of Portugal, was nominatedÂ President of the European Commission, the most powerful office in the European Union. On 1 December 2009, theÂ Treaty of LisbonÂ entered into force, after it had been signed by the European Union member states on 13 December 2007 in theÂ JerÃ³nimos Monastery, in Lisbon, enhancing the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the Union and improving the coherence of its action. TheÂ Republic of IrelandÂ was the only EU state to hold a democratic referendum on the Lisbon Treaty. It was initially rejected by voters in 2008.
Economic disruption and an unsustainable growth inÂ government debtÂ during theÂ financial crisis of 2007â€“2008Â led the country to negotiate in 2011 with the IMF and the European Union, through theÂ European Financial Stability MechanismÂ (EFSM) and theÂ European Financial Stability FacilityÂ (EFSF), a loan to help the country stabilise its finances.
The territory of Portugal includes an area in theÂ Iberian PeninsulaÂ (referred to asÂ the continentÂ by most Portuguese) and two archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean: the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores. It lies between latitudesÂ 33Â°Â andÂ 43Â° N, and longitudesÂ 32Â°Â andÂ 6Â° W.
Mainland PortugalÂ is split by its main river, theÂ Tagus, that flows from Spain and disgorges in Tagus Estuary, in Lisbon, before escaping into the Atlantic. The northern landscape is mountainous towards the interior with several plateaus indented by river valleys, whereas the south, including theÂ AlgarveÂ and theÂ AlentejoÂ regions, is characterized by rolling plains.
Portugal’s highest peak is the similarly namedÂ Mount PicoÂ on the island ofÂ PicoÂ in the Azores. This ancient volcano, which measures 2,351Â m (7,713Â ft) is an iconic symbol of the Azores, while theÂ Serra da EstrelaÂ on the mainland (the summit being 1,991Â m (6,532Â ft) above sea level) is an important seasonal attraction for skiers and winter sports enthusiasts.
The archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores are scattered within the Atlantic Ocean: the Azores straddling theÂ Mid-Atlantic RidgeÂ on a tectonic triple junction, and Madeira along a range formed byÂ in-plateÂ hotspotÂ geology. Geologically, these islands were formed by volcanic and seismic events. The last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in 1957â€“58 (Capelinhos) and minor earthquakes occur sporadically, usually of low intensity.
Portugal’s exclusive economic zone, a sea zone over which the Portuguese have special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources, has 1,727,408Â km2. This is the 3rd largestÂ exclusive economic zoneÂ of the European Union and the 11th largest in the world.
Portugal is defined as aÂ Mediterranean climateÂ (CsaÂ in the South, interior, and Douro region;Â CsbÂ in the North, Central Portugal and coastal Alentejo; mixedÂ oceanic climateÂ along the northern half of the coastline,Â Temperate Maritime (Cfb) in the mountains located in Northwestern sector (mainland) and also in some Azores islands,Â Semi-arid climateÂ orÂ Steppe climateÂ ((BSkÂ in certain parts of CÃ´a region and Beja district far South), and also in Porto Santo island (BSh), Warm Desertic (BWh) in Selvagens islands, Subtropical Humid in Corvo island (Cfa), according to theÂ KÃ¶ppen-Geiger Climate Classification), and is one of the warmest European countries: the annual average temperature inÂ mainland PortugalÂ varies from 8â€“12Â Â°C (46.4â€“53.6Â Â°F) in the mountainous interior north to 16â€“20Â Â°C (60.8â€“68.0Â Â°F) in the south and on theÂ GuadianaÂ river basin. There are however, variations from the highlands to the lowlands: Spanish biologist Salvador Rivas Martinez presents several different bioclimatic zones for Portugal.Â TheÂ Algarve, separated from theÂ AlentejoÂ region by mountains reaching up to 900 metres (3,000Â ft) in Alto de FÃ³ia, has a climate similar to that of the southern coastal areas of Spain or Southwest Australia.
Annual average rainfall in the mainland varies from just over 3,200Â mm (126.0Â in) in the northern mountains to less than 300Â mm (11.8Â in) in the area of the Massueime River, near CÃ´a, along theÂ DouroÂ river.Â Mount PicoÂ is recognized as receiving the largest annual rainfall (over 6,250Â mm (246.1Â in) per year) in Portugal, according toÂ Instituto PortuguÃªs do Mar e da Atmosfera.
In some areas, such as the Guadiana basin, annual average temperatures can be as high as 28Â Â°C (82Â Â°F), and summer highest temperatures routinely are over 40Â Â°C (104Â Â°F). The record high of 47.4Â Â°C (117.3Â Â°F) was recorded inÂ Amareleja, although this might not be the hottest spot in summer, according to satellite readings.
Snowfalls occur regularly in the winter in the interior North and Centre of the country in districts such asÂ Guarda,Â BraganÃ§a,Â ViseuÂ andÂ Vila Real, particularly on the mountains. In winter temperatures may drop below âˆ’10.0Â Â°C (14.0Â Â°F) in particular inÂ Serra da Estrela,Â Serra do GerÃªs,Â Serra do MarÃ£oÂ andÂ Serra de Montesinho. In these places snow can fall any time from October to May. In the South of the country snowfalls are rare but still occur in the highest elevations. While the official absolute minimum byÂ IPMAÂ is âˆ’16.0Â Â°C (3.2Â Â°F) inÂ Penhas da SaÃºdeÂ andÂ Miranda do Douro, lower temperatures have been recorded, such as âˆ’17.5Â Â°C (0.5Â Â°F) byÂ BraganÃ§aÂ Polytechnic Institute in the outskirts of the city in 1983, and below âˆ’20.0Â Â°C (âˆ’4.0Â Â°F) in Serra da Estrela
Portugal has around 2500 to 3200 hours of sunshine a year, an average of 4â€“6Â h in winter and 10â€“12Â h in the summer, with higher values in the south-east and lower in the north-west.
TheÂ sea surface temperatureÂ on the west coast of mainland Portugal varies from 12â€“15Â Â°C (53.6â€“59.0Â Â°F) in winter to 18â€“22Â Â°C (64.4â€“71.6Â Â°F) in the summer while on the south coast it ranges from 15Â Â°C (59.0Â Â°F) in winter and rises in the summer to about 23Â Â°C (73.4Â Â°F), occasionally reaching 26Â Â°C (78.8Â Â°F).
Both the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira have a subtropical climate, although variations between islands exist, making weather predictions very difficult (owing to rough topography). The Madeira and Azorean archipelagos have a narrower temperature range, with annual average temperatures exceeding 20Â Â°C (68Â Â°F) along the coast (according to the Portuguese Meteorological Institute). Some islands in Azores do have drier months in the summer. Consequently, the island of the Azores have been identified as having aÂ MediterraneanÂ climate (bothÂ CsaÂ andÂ CsbÂ types), while some islands (such asÂ FloresÂ orÂ Corvo) are classified as Maritime Temperate (Cfb) and Humid subtropical (Cfa), respectively, according to KÃ¶ppen-Geiger classification.
Porto SantoÂ island in Madeira has a semi-arid steppe climate (BSh). TheÂ Savage Islands, which are part of the regional territory of Madeira and a nature reserve are unique in being classified as a desert climate (BWh) with an annual average rainfall of approximately 150Â mm (5.9Â in). The sea surface temperature in the archipelagos varies from 17â€“18Â Â°C (62.6â€“64.4Â Â°F) in winter to 24â€“25Â Â°C (75.2â€“77.0Â Â°F) in the summer occasionally reaching 25Â Â°C (77.0Â Â°F).
Despite the fact that humans have occupied the territory of Portugal for thousands of years, something still remains of the original vegetation. InÂ GerÃªsÂ both mature deciduous and coniferous forests can be found, an extremely rare worldwide mature Mediterranean forest remain in some parts of theÂ ArrÃ¡bidaÂ mountain and a subtropicalÂ laurissilvaÂ forest, dating back to the Tertiary period, covers its largest continuous area in the world in the Madeira main island. Due to the human population decrease and rural exodus, Pyrenean oak and other local native trees are colonizing many abandoned areas.
Boar, Iberian red deer, roe deer, and the Iberian wild goat, are reported to have expanded greatly during recent decades. Boars were found recently roaming at night inside large urban areas, like inÂ Setubal.Â Protected areas of PortugalÂ include one national park, 12 natural parks, nine natural reserves, five natural monuments, and seven protected landscapes, which include theÂ Parque Nacional da Peneda-GerÃªs, theÂ Parque Natural da Serra da EstrelaÂ and theÂ Paul d’Arzila.
These natural environments are shaped by diverse flora, and include widespread species of pine (especially theÂ Pinus pinasterÂ andÂ Pinus pineaÂ species), the English oak (Quercus robur), the Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica) the chestnut (Castanea sativa), the cork-oak (Quercus suber), the holm oak (Quercus ilex) or the Portuguese oak (Quercus faginea). Due to their economic value, some species of the genusÂ EucalyptusÂ were introduced and are now common, despite their environmental impact.
LaurisilvaÂ is a unique type of subtropical rainforest, which nowadays, in Europe, is only restricted to the Iberian Peninsula: in the Azores, and in particular on the island of Madeira, there are large forests of endemicÂ LaurisilvaÂ (the latter protected as a natural heritage preserve). There are several species of diverseÂ mammalianÂ fauna, including theÂ fox,Â badger,Â iberian lynx,Â iberian wolf,Â wild goatÂ (Capra pyrenaica), wild cat (Felis silvestris),Â hare,Â weasel,Â polecat,Â chameleon,Â mongoose,Â civet, the occasionalÂ brown bearÂ and many others. Portugal is an important stopover for migratory birds, in places such asÂ Cape St. VincentÂ or theÂ MonchiqueÂ mountains, where thousands of birds cross from Europe to Africa during the autumn or in the spring (return migration).
Most of the avian species congregate along theÂ Iberian PeninsulaÂ since it is the closest stopover between Northern Europe and Africa. Six hundred bird species occur in Portugal (either for nesting or during the course of migration), and annually there are new registries of nesting species. The archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are transient stopover for American, European, and African birds, while continental Portugal mostly encounters European and African bird species.
There are more than 100 freshwater fish species, varying from the giant European catfish (in the Tagus International Natural Park) to some small and endemic species that live only in small lakes (along the western portion of country, for example). Some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss, pollution and drought. Up-welling along the west coast of Portugal makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and diverse species of marine fish; the Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in the world.Â Marine fishÂ species are more common, and include thousands of species, such as theÂ sardineÂ (Sardina pilchardus),Â tunaÂ andÂ Atlantic mackerel. Bioluminescent species are also well represented (including species in different colour spectrum and forms), like the glowing plankton that are possible to observe on some beaches.
There are many endemic insect species, most only found in certain parts of Portugal, while other species are more widespread like theÂ stag beetleÂ (Lucanus cervus) and theÂ cicada. TheÂ MacaronesianÂ islands (Azores and Madeira) have many endemic species (like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs) that evolved independently from other regions of Portugal. In Madeira, for example, it is possible to observe more than 250 species of landÂ gastropods.
Government and administration
Portugal has been aÂ semi-presidentialÂ representative democraticÂ republicÂ since the ratification of theÂ Constitution of 1976, withÂ Lisbon, the nation’s largest city, as its capital. The Constitution grants the division or separation of powers among four bodies referred as “organs of Sovereignty”: theÂ President of the Republic, theÂ Government, theÂ Assembly of the RepublicÂ and theÂ Courts.
The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has an executive role: the current President isÂ Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa. The Assembly of the Republic is a single chamber parliament composed of 230 deputies elected for a four-year term. The Government is headed by theÂ Prime MinisterÂ (currentlyÂ AntÃ³nio Costa) and includes Ministers and Secretaries of State. TheÂ CourtsÂ are organized into several levels, among the judicial, administrative and fiscal branches. TheÂ Supreme CourtsÂ are institutions of last resort/appeal. A thirteen-memberÂ Constitutional CourtÂ oversees the constitutionality of the laws.
Portugal operates a multi-party system of competitive legislatures/local administrative governments at the national, regional and local levels. The Assembly of the Republic, Regional Assemblies and local municipalities and parishes, are dominated by two political parties, theÂ Socialist PartyÂ and theÂ Social Democratic Party, in addition to theÂ Unitary Democratic CoalitionÂ (Portuguese Communist PartyÂ andÂ Ecologist Party “The Greens”), theÂ Left BlocÂ and theÂ Democratic and Social CentreÂ â€“ People’s Party, which garner between 5 and 15% of the vote regularly.
Presidency of the Republic
The Head of State of Portugal is theÂ President of the Republic, elected to a five-year term by direct,Â universal suffrage. He or she has also supervision andÂ reserve powers. Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government (where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections); dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic (to call early elections);Â vetoingÂ legislation (which may be overridden by the Assembly); and declaring a state of war or siege. The President is also theÂ ex officioÂ Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
The President is advised on issues of importance by theÂ Council of State, which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the 1976 Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president.
The Government is headed by the presidentially appointedÂ Prime Minister, also including one or more Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers, Secretaries of State and Under-Secretaries of State.
The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration.
It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited legislative powers. The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly.
TheÂ Council of MinistersÂ â€“ under the presidency of the Prime Minister (or the President of Portugal at the latter’s request) and the Ministers (may also include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers) â€“ acts as theÂ cabinet. Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate. The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office.
The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to 230 deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system ofÂ closedÂ party-list proportional representation, deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections.
Currently the Government (PS) and the parties supporting it through aÂ confidence-and-supply agreementÂ (BE,Â PCP,Â PEV) control parliament with the most seats. TheÂ PSDÂ andÂ CDS-PPÂ parties form the opposition to the government alongsideÂ PAN, Chega, Iniciativa Liberal and Partido Livre.
Law and drug policy
The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system. The main laws include the Constitution (1976, as amended), theÂ Portuguese Civil CodeÂ (1966, as amended) and theÂ Penal Code of PortugalÂ (1982, as amended). Other relevant laws are theÂ Commercial CodeÂ (1888, as amended) and theÂ Civil Procedure CodeÂ (1961, as amended).
The supreme national courts are theÂ Supreme Court of JusticeÂ and theÂ Constitutional Court. TheÂ Public Ministry, headed by the Attorney General of the Republic, constitutes the independent body of public prosecutors.
Portuguese laws were applied in the formerÂ colonies and territoriesÂ and continue to be major influences for those countries.
Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all common drugs in 2001, the first country in the world to do so. Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are still illegal in other developed nations includingÂ cannabis,Â cocaine,Â heroin, andÂ LSD. While possession is legal, trafficking and possession of more than “10 days worth of personal use” are still punishable by jail time and fines. People caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may refuse treatment without consequences. Despite criticism from other European nations, who stated Portugal’s drug consumption would tremendously increase, overall drug use has declined along with the number ofÂ HIVÂ infection cases, which had dropped 50 percent by 2009. Drug use among 16- to 18-year-olds also declined, however the use of marijuana rose only slightly among that age group.
LGBTI rightsÂ have increased substantially in the past years. On 27 August 2003, Portugal added the anti-discrimination employment law on the basis of sexual orientation.Â At 24 July 2004, sexual orientation was added to the Constitution as part of the protected from discrimination characteristics.Â On 31 May 2010, Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth country in the world to legally recognizeÂ same-sex marriageÂ at the national level. The law came into force on 5 June 2010.Â Same-sex adoptionÂ has been allowed since 1 March 2016Â as is female same-sex couple access to medically assisted reproduction since 13 May 2016.Â This bill was adopted by the Parliament and signed by PresidentÂ Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa.Â As of January 2017 the NewÂ Law of Gender Identity,Â simplified the legal process ofÂ genderÂ and name change forÂ transgenderÂ people, making it easier for minors to change theirÂ sex markerÂ in legal documents.Â At August 2018, the right toÂ gender identityÂ andÂ gender expressionÂ self-determination became protected,Â intersexÂ minors became protected by law from unnecessaryÂ medical proceduresÂ “until the minor gender identity manifests” and the right of protection from discrimination on the basis ofÂ sex characteristicsÂ also became protected by the same law.
Portugal’s main police organizations are theÂ Guarda Nacional RepublicanaÂ â€“ GNRÂ (National Republican Guard), aÂ gendarmerie; theÂ PolÃcia de SeguranÃ§a PÃºblicaÂ â€“ PSPÂ (Public Security Police), a civilian police force who work in urban areas; and theÂ PolÃcia JudiciÃ¡riaÂ â€“ PJÂ (Judicial Police), a highly specialized criminal investigation police that is overseen by theÂ Public Ministry.
Portugal has 49 correctional facilities in total run by the Ministry of Justice. They include 17 central prisons, 4 special prisons, 27 regional prisons, and 1 ‘Cadeia de Apoio'(Support Detention Centre).Â Their current prison population is about 12,806 inmates, which comes to about 0.12% of their entire population.Â Their incarceration rate has been on the rise since 2010, with a 15% increase over the past eight years.
Administratively, Portugal is divided into 308Â municipalitiesÂ (Portuguese:Â municÃpios orÂ concelhos), which after a reform inÂ 2013Â are subdivided into 3,092 civil parishes (Portuguese:Â freguesia). Operationally, the municipality and civil parish, along with the national government, are the only legallyÂ local administrative unitsÂ identified by the government of Portugal (for example, cities, towns or villages have no standing in law, although may be used as catchment for the defining services). For statistical purposes the Portuguese government also identifiesÂ Nomenclature of Territorial Units for StatisticsÂ (NUTS), inter-municipal communities and informally, the district system, used until European integration (and being phased-out by the national government).[original research?]Â Continental Portugal is agglomerated into 18 districts, while the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are governed asÂ autonomous regions; the largest units, established since 1976, are eitherÂ mainland PortugalÂ (Portuguese:Â Portugal Continental) and theÂ autonomous regions of PortugalÂ (AzoresÂ andÂ Madeira).
The 18 districts of mainland Portugal are:Â Aveiro,Â Beja,Â Braga,Â BraganÃ§a,Â Castelo Branco,Â Coimbra,Â Ã‰vora,Â Faro,Â Guarda,Â Leiria,Â Lisbon,Â Portalegre,Â Porto,Â SantarÃ©m,Â SetÃºbal,Â Viana do Castelo,Â Vila RealÂ andÂ ViseuÂ â€“ each district takes the name of the district capital.
Within the European Union NUTS system, Portugal is divided into seven regions: theÂ Azores,Â Alentejo,Â Algarve,Â Centro,Â Lisboa,Â MadeiraÂ andÂ Norte, and with the exception of the Azores and Madeira, NUTS areas are subdivided into 28 subregions.
|1||Lisbon||2,761Â km2Â (1,066Â sqÂ mi)||2,250,533||10||Guarda||5,518Â km2Â (2,131Â sqÂ mi)||160,939|
|2||Leiria||3,517Â km2Â (1,358Â sqÂ mi)||470,930||11||Coimbra||3,947Â km2Â (1,524Â sqÂ mi)||430,104|
|3||SantarÃ©m||6,747Â km2Â (2,605Â sqÂ mi)||453,638||12||Aveiro||2,808Â km2Â (1,084Â sqÂ mi)||714,200|
|4||SetÃºbal||5,064Â km2Â (1,955Â sqÂ mi)||851,258||13||Viseu||5,007Â km2Â (1,933Â sqÂ mi)||377,653|
|5||Beja||10,225Â km2Â (3,948Â sqÂ mi)||152,758||14||BraganÃ§a||6,608Â km2Â (2,551Â sqÂ mi)||136,252|
|6||Faro||4,960Â km2Â (1,915Â sqÂ mi)||451,006||15||Vila Real||4,328Â km2Â (1,671Â sqÂ mi)||206,661|
|7||Ã‰vora||7,393Â km2Â (2,854Â sqÂ mi)||166,706||16||Porto||2,395Â km2Â (925Â sqÂ mi)||1,817,117|
|8||Portalegre||6,065Â km2Â (2,342Â sqÂ mi)||118,506||17||Braga||2,673Â km2Â (1,032Â sqÂ mi)||848,185|
|9||Castelo Branco||6,675Â km2Â (2,577Â sqÂ mi)||196,264||18||Viana do Castelo||2,255Â km2Â (871Â sqÂ mi)||244,836|
|2,333Â km2Â (901Â sqÂ mi)||246,772|
|801Â km2Â (309Â sqÂ mi)||267,785|
A member state of theÂ United NationsÂ since 1955, Portugal is also a founding member ofÂ NATOÂ (1949),Â OECDÂ (1961) andÂ EFTAÂ (1960); it left the last in 1986 to join theÂ European Economic Community, which became the European Union in 1993.
In 1996, Portugal co-founded theÂ Community of Portuguese Language CountriesÂ (CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organization and political association ofÂ LusophoneÂ nations across four continents, whereÂ PortugueseÂ is an official language. The global headquarters of the CPLP is inÂ Penafiel Palace, inÂ Lisbon.
AntÃ³nio Guterres, who has served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1995 to 2002 andÂ UN High Commissioner for RefugeesÂ from 2005 to 2015, assumed the post ofÂ UN Secretary-GeneralÂ on 1 January 2017; making him the first Secretary-General from Western Europe sinceÂ Kurt WaldheimÂ of Austria (1972â€“1981), the first former head of government to become Secretary-General and the first Secretary-General born after the establishment of the United Nations on 26 June 1945.
In addition, Portugal is a full member of theÂ Latin UnionÂ (1983) and theÂ Organization of Ibero-American StatesÂ (1949). It has a friendship alliance andÂ dual citizenshipÂ treaty with its former colony, Brazil. Portugal and the United Kingdom of Great Britain share the world’s oldest active military accord through theirÂ Anglo-Portuguese AllianceÂ (Treaty of Windsor), which was signed in 1373.
There are two international territorial disputes, both with Spain:
- Olivenza. Under Portuguese sovereignty since 1297, the municipality of Olivenza was ceded to Spain under theÂ Treaty of BadajozÂ in 1801, after theÂ War of the Oranges. Portugal claimed it back in 1815 under theÂ Treaty of Vienna. However, since the 19th century, it has been continuously ruled by Spain which considers the territory theirs not onlyÂ de factoÂ but alsoÂ de jure.
- The Ilhas Selvagens (Savage Islands). The archipelago is under Portuguese domination but is geographically closer to theÂ Canary IslandsÂ (165Â km) than toÂ MadeiraÂ (280Â km). Found in 1364 by Italian navigators, the islands belonged to private owners until 1971, when the Portuguese government bought them and established a natural reserve area covering the whole archipelago. The islands have been claimed by Spain since 1911 and the dispute has caused some periods of political tension between the two countries. The main problem is not so much their intrinsic value but the fact that they expand theÂ Exclusive Economic ZoneÂ of Portugal considerably to the south.
The armed forces have three branches:Â Navy,Â ArmyÂ andÂ Air Force. They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and provide humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad. As of 2008, the three branches numbered 39,200 active personnel including 7,500 women.Â Portuguese military expenditureÂ in 2009 was 5 billion US$,Â representing 2.1 percent of GDP. Military conscription was abolished in 2004. The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years.
The Army (21,000 personnel) comprises three brigades and other small units. AnÂ infantry brigadeÂ (mainly equipped withÂ Pandur IIÂ APC), aÂ mechanized brigadeÂ (mainly equipped withÂ Leopard 2 A6Â tanks andÂ M113Â APC) and aÂ Rapid Reaction BrigadeÂ (consisting ofÂ paratroopers,Â commandosÂ and rangers). The Navy (10,700 personnel, of which 1,580 areÂ marines), the world’s oldest surviving naval force, has five frigates, seven corvettes, two submarines, and 28 patrol and auxiliary vessels. The Air Force (7,500 personnel) has theÂ Lockheed F-16 Fighting FalconÂ and theÂ Dassault/Dornier Alpha JetÂ as the main combat aircraft.
In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there is theÂ National Republican Guard, a security force subject to military law and organization (gendarmerie) comprising 25,000 personnel. This force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior Ministry. It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor.
Portuguese Air Force
F-16 Fighting Falcon
The United States maintains a military presence with 770 troops in theÂ Lajes Air BaseÂ atÂ Terceira Island, in the Azores. TheÂ Allied Joint Force Command LisbonÂ (JFC Lisbon)Â â€“ one of the three main subdivisions ofÂ NATO‘sÂ Allied Command OperationsÂ â€“ it is based inÂ Oeiras, near Lisbon.
In the 20th century, Portugal engaged in two major conflicts:Â World War IÂ and theÂ Portuguese Colonial WarÂ (1961â€“1974). After the end of theÂ Portuguese EmpireÂ in 1975, the Portuguese Armed Forces have participated in peacekeeping missions in East Timor, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Somalia, Iraq (Nasiriyah), Lebanon,Â MaliÂ andÂ Central African Republic.Â Portugal also conducted several independent unilateral military operations abroad, as were the cases of the interventions of the Portuguese Armed Forces in Angola in 1992 and in Guinea-Bissau in 1998 with the main objectives of protecting and withdrawing of Portuguese and foreign citizens threatened by local civil conflicts.
The Portuguese government is heavily indebted, and received a 78 billion euro bailout from theÂ European UnionÂ and theÂ International Monetary FundÂ in May 2011.Â The ratio of Portugal’s debt to its overall economy, was 107 percent when it received the bailout.Â As part of the deal, the country agreed to cut its budget deficit from 9.8 percent of GDP in 2010 to 5.9 percent in 2011, 4.5 percent in 2012 and 3 percent in 2013.
After the bailout was announced, the Portuguese government headed byÂ Pedro Passos CoelhoÂ managed to implement measures with the intention of improving the state’s financial situation, including tax hikes, a freeze of civil service-related lower-wages and cuts of higher-wages by 14.3%, on top of the government’s spending cuts. The Portuguese government also agreed to eliminate itsÂ golden shareÂ inÂ Portugal TelecomÂ which gave it veto power over vital decisions.Â In 2012, all public servants had already seen an average wage cut of 20% relative to their 2010 baseline, with cuts reaching 25% for those earning more than 1,500 euro per month.
The IMF, theÂ European CommissionÂ (EC) and theÂ European Central BankÂ (ECB) said in September 2012 that Portugal’s debt would peak at 124 percent of gross domestic product in 2014.Â The IMF previously said in July 2012 that Portugal’s debt would peak at about 118.5 percent of GDP in 2013.Â In September 2013, the Portuguese Government reviewed again the public debt of Portugal for 2013 to 127.8 percent, after a peak of 130.9 percent in that month.
A report released in January 2011 by theÂ DiÃ¡rio de NotÃciasÂ and published in Portugal byÂ Gradiva, had demonstrated that in the period between theÂ Carnation RevolutionÂ in 1974 and 2010, the democraticÂ Portuguese Republic governmentsÂ encouraged over-expenditure and investment bubbles through unclearÂ Publicâ€“private partnershipsÂ and funding of numerous ineffective and unnecessary external consultancy and advisory of committees and firms. This allowed considerableÂ slippageÂ in state-managedÂ public worksÂ and inflated top management and head officer bonuses and wages. Persistent and lasting recruitment policies boosted the number of redundant public servants. RiskyÂ credit,Â public debtÂ creation, and EuropeanÂ structural and cohesion fundsÂ were mismanaged across almost four decades.
Two Portuguese banks,Â Banco PortuguÃªs de NegÃ³ciosÂ (BPN) andÂ Banco Privado PortuguÃªsÂ (BPP), had been accumulating losses for years due to bad investments, embezzlement and accounting fraud. The case of BPN was particularly serious because of its size, market share, and the political implications â€“ Portugal’s then President, Cavaco Silva and some of his political allies, maintained personal and business relationships with the bank and its CEO, who was eventually charged and arrested for fraud and other crimes.Â On grounds of avoiding a potentially serious financial crisis in the Portuguese economy, the Portuguese government decided to give them a bailout, eventually at a future loss to taxpayers and to the Portuguese people in general.
Portugal is aÂ developedÂ and aÂ high income country, with a GDP per capita of 77% of the EU28 average in 2017 (increasing from 75% in 2012)Â and aÂ HDIÂ of 0.843 (the 41st highest) in 2016.Â By the end of 2018, Portugal’s GDP (PPP) was $32,554 per capita, according to OECD’s report.Â The national currency of Portugal is theÂ euroÂ (â‚¬), which replaced theÂ Portuguese Escudo, and the country was one of the original member states of theÂ eurozone. Portugal’s central bank is theÂ Banco de Portugal, an integral part of theÂ European System of Central Banks. Most industries, businesses and financial institutions are concentrated in theÂ LisbonÂ andÂ PortoÂ metropolitan areas â€“ theÂ SetÃºbal,Â Aveiro,Â Braga,Â CoimbraÂ andÂ LeiriaÂ districts are the biggest economic centres outside these two main areas. According to World Travel Awards, Portugal was Europe’s Leading Golf Destination in 2012 and 2013.
Since theÂ Carnation RevolutionÂ of 1974, which culminated in the end of one of Portugal’s most notableÂ phases of economic expansionÂ (that started in the 1960s),Â a significant change has occurred in the nation’s annual economic growth.Â After the turmoil of the 1974 revolution and theÂ PRECÂ period, Portugal tried to adapt to a changingÂ modern global economy, a process that continues in 2013. Since the 1990s, Portugal’sÂ public consumption-basedÂ economic developmentÂ model has been slowly changing to a system that is focused on exports,Â private investmentÂ and the development of theÂ high-techÂ sector. Consequently, business services have overtaken more traditional industries such as textiles, clothing, footwear andÂ corkÂ (Portugal is the world’s leading cork producer),Â wood products and beverages.
In the second decade of the 21st century, the Portuguese economy suffered its most severe recession since the 1970s, resulting in the country having to be bailed out by the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). The bailout, agreed to in 2011, requiredÂ PortugalÂ to enter into a range of austerity measures in exchange for funding support of â‚¬78,000,000,000. In May 2014, the country exited the bailout but reaffirmed its commitment to maintaining its reformist momentum. At the time of exiting the bailout, the economy had contracted by 0.7% in the first quarter of 2014; however, unemployment, while still high, had fallen to 15.3%.
TheÂ Economist Intelligence Unit‘s quality of life index placed Portugal as the country with the 19th-best quality of life in the world for 2005, ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries like France, Germany, the United Kingdom and South Korea, but 9 places behind its sole neighbor, Spain.Â This is despite the fact that Portugal remains as one of the countries with the lowest per capita GDP in Western Europe.
MajorÂ state-owned companiesÂ include:Â Ãguas de PortugalÂ (water),Â Caixa Geral de DepÃ³sitosÂ (banking),Â Comboios de PortugalÂ (railways),Â Companhia das LezÃriasÂ (agriculture) andÂ RTPÂ (media). Some former state-owned entities are managed by state-runÂ holding companyÂ ParpÃºblica, which is aÂ shareholderÂ of several public and private companies.Â Among former state-owned companies recently privatised are:Â CTTÂ (postal service),Â TAP PortugalÂ (airline) andÂ ANAÂ (airports).
Companies listed onÂ Euronext LisbonÂ stock exchangeÂ likeÂ EDP,Â Galp,Â JerÃ³nimo Martins,Â Mota-Engil,Â Novabase,Â Semapa,Â Portucel Soporcel,Â Portugal TelecomÂ andÂ Sonae, are amongst the largest corporations of Portugal by number of employees,Â net incomeÂ or internationalÂ market share. The Euronext Lisbon is the major stock exchange of Portugal and is part of theÂ NYSE Euronext, the first global stock exchange. TheÂ PSI-20Â is Portugal’s most selective and widely knownÂ stock index.
TheÂ International Monetary FundÂ issued an update report on the economy of Portugal in late-June 2017 with a strong near-term outlook and an increase in investments and exports over previous years. Because of a surplus in 2016, the country was no longer bound by the Excessive Deficit Procedure which had been implemented during an earlier financial crisis. The banking system was more stable, although there were still non-performing loans and corporate debt. The IMF recommended working on solving these problems for Portugal to be able to attract more private investment. “Sustained strong growth, together with continued public debt reduction, would reduce vulnerabilities arising from high indebtedness, particularly when monetary accommodation is reduced.”
Agriculture in PortugalÂ is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. However, the sector also includes larger scaleÂ intensive farmingÂ export-orientedÂ agrobusinessesÂ backed by companies (likeÂ Grupo RAR‘sÂ Vitacress,Â Sovena,Â Lactogal,Â Vale da Rosa,Â Companhia das LezÃriasÂ andÂ Valouro). The country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock products, including:Â tomatoes,Â citrus,Â green vegetables,Â rice,Â wheat,Â barley,Â maize,Â olives,Â oilseeds,Â nuts,Â cherries,Â bilberry,Â table grapes,Â edible mushrooms,Â dairy products,Â poultryÂ andÂ beef.
ForestryÂ has also played an important economic role among the rural communities and industry (namelyÂ paper industryÂ that includesÂ Portucel Soporcel Group,Â engineered woodÂ that includesÂ Sonae IndÃºstria, andÂ furnitureÂ that includes several manufacturing plants in and aroundÂ PaÃ§os de Ferreira, the core of Portugal’s major industrial operations ofÂ IKEA). In 2001, the gross agricultural product accounted for 4% of the national GDP.
Traditionally a sea-power, Portugal has had a strong tradition inÂ the Portuguese fishing sectorÂ and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita.Â The main landing sites in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira), according to total landings in weight by year, are the harbours ofÂ Matosinhos,Â Peniche,Â OlhÃ£o,Â Sesimbra,Â Figueira da Foz,Â Sines,Â PortimÃ£oÂ andÂ Madeira. Portuguese-processed fish products are exported through several companies, under a number of different brands and registered trademarks, such asÂ Ramirez, the world’s oldest active canned fish producer.
Portugal is a significant EuropeanÂ mineralsÂ producer and is ranked among Europe’s leadingÂ copperÂ producers. The nation is also a notable producer ofÂ tin,Â tungstenÂ andÂ uranium. However, the country lacks the potential to conductÂ hydrocarbon explorationÂ andÂ aluminium, a limitation that has hindered the development of Portugal’sÂ miningÂ andÂ metallurgyÂ sectors. Although the country has vast iron and coal reserves â€“ mainly in the north â€“ after the 1974 revolution and the consequentÂ economic globalization, low competitiveness forced a decrease in the extraction activity for these minerals. TheÂ PanasqueiraÂ andÂ Neves-Corvo minesÂ are among the most recognised Portuguese mines that are still in operation.
Portugal is rich in itsÂ lithiumÂ subsoil, which is especially concentrated in the districts ofÂ Guarda,Â Viseu,Â Vila RealÂ andÂ Viana do Castelo, while most of the country’s lithium comes from the GonÃ§alo aplite-pegmatite field. The largestÂ lithiumÂ mine in Europe is operated by Grupo Mota, Felmica, in the Guarda region, which is estimated to have reserves for 30 years of production. It has 5 more deposits in its possession.Â Savannah Resources in May 2018 announced a 52% increase in the estimated lithium resources at the Mina do Barroso Lithium Project in northern Portugal, saying the country could become the first European supplier ofÂ spodumene, a lithium-bearing mineral.Â The company said the estimated mineral resources at the mine now stood at 14 million tonnes. Lithium prices have risen in expectation of growing demand for the mineral, which is used in batteries for electric vehicles and for storing electricity from the power grid. Europe consumes more than 20 per cent of the global supply of battery-grade lithium but currently has to import all its supplies of the mineral.
W Resources stated in 2018 that it had started a new drilling campaign at its SÃ£o MartinhoÂ goldÂ project in Portugal. The so-called reverse circulation drilling program included 15 holes with around 2,000 metres of total drilling. The objective is to extend resources by integrating the data from 2016 drilling results with the expansion expected with the ongoing campaign.
Industry is diversified, ranging fromÂ automotiveÂ (Volkswagen AutoeuropaÂ andÂ Peugeot CitroÃ«n),Â aerospaceÂ (EmbraerÂ andÂ OGMA),Â electronicsÂ andÂ textiles, toÂ food,Â chemicals,Â cementÂ andÂ wood pulp. Volkswagen Group’sÂ AutoEuropaÂ motor vehicle assembly plant inÂ PalmelaÂ is among the largestÂ foreign direct investmentÂ projects in Portugal. Modern non-traditional technology-based industries, such asÂ aerospace,Â biotechnologyÂ andÂ information technology, have been developed in several locations across the country.Â Alverca,Â CovilhÃ£,Â Ã‰vora,Â andÂ Ponte de SorÂ are the main centres of the Portuguese aerospace industry, which is led by Brazil-based company Embraer and the Portuguese company OGMA. Following the turn of the 21st century, many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded, and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas ofÂ Lisbon,Â Porto,Â Braga,Â CoimbraÂ andÂ Aveiro.
The banking and insurance sectors performed well until theÂ financial crisis of 2007â€“2008, and this partly reflected a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal. While sensitive to various types of market and underwritingÂ risks, it has been estimated that overall both the life and non-life sectors will be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely.
Travel andÂ tourismÂ continue to be extremely important for Portugal. It has been necessary for the country to focus upon its niche attractions, such as health, nature and rural tourism, to stay ahead of its competitors.
Portugal is among the top 20 most-visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 20,000,000 foreign tourists each year.Â In 2014, Portugal was electedÂ The Best European CountryÂ byÂ USA Today.
Tourist hotspots in Portugal are:Â Lisbon,Â Cascais,Â Fatima,Â Algarve,Â Madeira,Â PortoÂ andÂ Coimbra. Lisbon attracts the sixteenth-most tourists among European citiesÂ (with seven million tourists occupying the city’s hotels in 2006).
Also, between 5â€“6 million religious pilgrims visitÂ FatimaÂ each year, where apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary to three shepherd children reportedly took place in 1917. TheÂ Sanctuary of Our Lady of FatimaÂ is one of the largest Roman Catholic shrines in the world. The Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist destinations, such as theÂ Douro Valley, the island ofÂ Porto Santo, andÂ Alentejo.
The legend of theÂ Rooster of BarcelosÂ tells the story of a dead rooster’s miraculous intervention in proving the innocence of a man who had been falsely accused and sentenced to death. The story is associated with the 17th-centuryÂ calvaryÂ that is part of the collection of the Archeological Museum located in PaÃ§o dos Condes, a gothic-style palace inÂ Barcelos, a city in northwest Portugal. TheÂ Rooster of BarcelosÂ is bought by thousands of tourists as aÂ souvenir.
On 30 November 2016, the United Nations added the PortugueseÂ BisalhÃ£esÂ tradition of making black pottery to the UNESCO Heritage Protection List.Â On 7 December 2017, theÂ United NationsÂ added theÂ Bonecos de EstremozÂ â€“Â Toys ofÂ EstremozÂ tradition as anÂ UNESCO Intangible Cultural HeritageÂ of Humankind.
Scientific and technological research activities in Portugal are mainly conducted within a network ofÂ R&DÂ units belonging toÂ public universitiesÂ and state-managed autonomous research institutions like theÂ INETIÂ â€“ Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e InovaÃ§Ã£oÂ and theÂ INRBÂ â€“ Instituto Nacional dos Recursos BiolÃ³gicos. The funding and management of this research system is mainly conducted under the authority of theÂ Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher EducationÂ (MCTES) and the MCTES’sÂ FundaÃ§Ã£o para a CiÃªncia e TecnologiaÂ (FCT).
The largest R&D units of the public universities by volume of research grants and peer-reviewed publications, includeÂ biosciencesÂ research institutions like theÂ Instituto de Medicina Molecular, theÂ Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, theÂ IPATIMUP, theÂ Instituto de Biologia Molecular e CelularÂ and theÂ Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute.
Among the largest non-state-run research institutions in Portugal are theÂ Instituto Gulbenkian de CiÃªnciaÂ and theÂ Champalimaud Foundation, a neuroscience and oncology research centre which awards every year one of the highest monetary prizes of any science prize in the world. A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects. One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is theÂ Sciences Academy of Lisbon, founded in 1779.
IberianÂ bilateral state-supported research efforts include theÂ International Iberian Nanotechnology LaboratoryÂ and theÂ IbercivisÂ distributed computingÂ platform, which are joint research programmes of both Portugal and Spain. Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. These include theÂ European Space AgencyÂ (ESA), theÂ European Laboratory for Particle PhysicsÂ (CERN),Â ITER, and theÂ European Southern ObservatoryÂ (ESO).
Portugal has the largestÂ aquariumÂ in Europe, theÂ Lisbon Oceanarium, and the Portuguese have several other notable organizations focused on science-related exhibits and divulgation, like the state agencyÂ CiÃªncia Viva, a programme of the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology to the promotion of a scientific and technological culture among the Portuguese population,Â theÂ Science Museum of the University of Coimbra, theÂ National Museum of Natural HistoryÂ at the University of Lisbon, and theÂ Visionarium. With the emergence and growth of severalÂ science parksÂ throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop severalÂ science parks across the country. These include theÂ TagusparkÂ (inÂ Oeiras), theÂ Coimbra iParqueÂ (inÂ Coimbra), theÂ biocantÂ (inÂ Cantanhede), theÂ Madeira TecnopoloÂ (inÂ Funchal),Â Sines TecnopoloÂ (inÂ Sines), TecmaiaÂ (inÂ Maia) andÂ ParkurbisÂ (inÂ CovilhÃ£). Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support.
Egas Moniz, a Portuguese physician who developed theÂ cerebral angiographyÂ andÂ leucotomy, received in 1949 theÂ Nobel Prize in Physiology or MedicineÂ â€“ he is the first Portuguese recipient of aÂ Nobel PrizeÂ and the only in the sciences.
By the early-1970s, Portugal’sÂ fast economic growthÂ with increasingÂ consumptionÂ and purchase of new automobiles set the priority for improvements in transportation. Again in the 1990s, after joining theÂ European Economic Community, the country built many new motorways. Today, the country has a 68,732Â km (42,708Â mi) road network, of which almost 3,000Â km (1,864Â mi) are part of system of 44 motorways. Opened in 1944, the first motorway (which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium) was an innovative project that made Portugal among one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway (this roadway eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5).
Although a few other tracts were created (around 1960 and 1970), it was only after the beginning of the 1980s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented. In 1972,Â Brisa, the highway concessionaire, was founded to handle the management of many of the region’s motorways. On many highways, a toll needs to be paid (seeÂ Via Verde).Â Vasco da Gama bridgeÂ is the longest bridge in Europe at 12.345Â km.
Continental Portugal‘s 89,015Â km2Â (34,369Â sqÂ mi) territory is serviced by four international airports located near the principal cities ofÂ Lisbon,Â Porto,Â FaroÂ andÂ Beja. Lisbon’s geographical position makes it a stopover for many foreign airlines at several airports within the country. The primaryÂ flag-carrierÂ isÂ TAP Air Portugal, although many other domestic airlines provide services within and without the country. The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, inÂ Alcochete, to replaceÂ Lisbon Portela Airport, though this plan has been suspended due to austerity measures. Currently, the most important airports are inÂ Lisbon,Â Porto,Â Faro,Â FunchalÂ (Madeira), andÂ Ponta DelgadaÂ (Azores), managed by the national airport authority groupÂ ANAÂ â€“ Aeroportos de Portugal. One other important airport is the Aeroporto Internacional das Lajes on the island of Terceira in the Azores. This airport serves as one of two international airports serving countries outside the European Union for all nine islands of the Azores. It also serves as a military air base for the United States Air Force. The base remains in use to the present day.
A national railway system that extends throughout the country and into Spain, is supported and administered byÂ Comboios de PortugalÂ (CP).Â Rail transportÂ of passengers and goods is derived using the 2,791Â km (1,734Â mi) of railway lines currently in service, of which 1,430Â km (889Â mi) are electrified and about 900Â km (559Â mi) allow train speeds greater than 120Â km/h (75Â mph). The railway network is managed byÂ Infraestruturas de PortugalÂ while the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of CP, both public companies. In 2006, the CP carried 133,000,000 passengers and 9,750,000Â tonnesÂ (9,600,000Â long tons; 10,700,000Â short tons) of goods.
The two largest metropolitan areas have subway systems:Â Lisbon MetroÂ andÂ Metro Sul do TejoÂ in theÂ Lisbon metropolitan areaÂ andÂ Porto MetroÂ in theÂ Porto Metropolitan Area, each with more than 35Â km (22Â mi) of lines. In Portugal,Â Lisbon tram servicesÂ have been supplied by theÂ Companhia de Carris de Ferro de LisboaÂ (Carris), for over a century. InÂ Porto,Â a tram network, of which only a tourist line on the shores of theÂ DouroÂ remains, began construction on 12 September 1895 (a first for theÂ Iberian Peninsula). All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services.
Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most cost-effective renewable energy sources. Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuels. In 2006, the world’s largestÂ solar powerÂ plant at that date, theÂ Moura Photovoltaic Power Station, began operating nearÂ Moura, in the south, while the world’s first commercialÂ wave powerÂ farm, theÂ AguÃ§adoura Wave Farm, opened in theÂ Norte regionÂ (2008). By the end of 2006, 66% of the country’s electrical production was from coal and fuel power plants, while 29% were derived fromÂ hydroelectricÂ dams, and 6% byÂ wind energy.
In 2008, renewable energy resources were producing 43% of the nation’s consumption of electricity, even as hydroelectric production decreased with severe droughts.Â As of June 2010, electricity exports had outnumbered imports. In the period between January and May 2010, 70% of the national production of energy came from renewable sources.
Portugal’s national energy transmission company,Â Redes EnergÃ©ticas NacionaisÂ (REN), uses sophisticated modeling to predict weather, especially wind patterns, and computer programs to calculate energy from the various renewable-energy plants. Before the solar/wind revolution, Portugal had generated electricity from hydropower plants on its rivers for decades. New programmes combine wind and water: wind-driven turbines pump water uphill at night, the most blustery period; then the water flows downhill by day, generating electricity, when consumer demand is highest. Portugal’s distribution system is also now a two-way street. Instead of just delivering electricity, it draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop solar panels. The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity.
The Statistics Portugal (Portuguese:Â INE â€“Â Instituto Nacional de EstatÃstica) estimates that, according to the 2011 census, the population was 10,562,178 (of which 52% was female, 48% was male). In 2018 and according to more up-to-date figures, the population decreased to 10,276,617.Â This population has been relatively homogeneous for most of its history: a single religion (Roman Catholicism) and a single language have contributed to this ethnic and national unity.Â Minorities ofÂ CristÃ£os NovosÂ (New Christians) nevertheless, stayed in Portugal after converting to Catholicism. A very small number of former Jews may have continued to observe rabbinic Judaism in secret over many generations, namely theÂ Jews of Belmonte, a town in the interior; where people now observe theÂ JewishÂ faith openly. Some famous Portuguese New Christians were the mathematicianÂ Pedro NunesÂ and the physician and naturalistÂ Garcia de Orta. Another interesting demographic feature relates to the Scandinavian expansion towards the West and strong activity in Northern Portugal where some coastline communities keptÂ ScandinavianÂ ancestry inÂ Aveiro,Â PortoÂ andÂ BragaÂ regions.
The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation ofÂ Y-chromosomeÂ andÂ mtDNAÂ data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin inÂ PaleolithicÂ peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45,000 years ago. All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic. Genetic studies show Portuguese populations not to be significantly different from other European populations.Â Portuguese people have a preponderancy of Iberian genetics (Iron Age Period)Â which belong to R1b haplogroup family alongside withÂ Brythonic,Â AlpineÂ andÂ GoidelicÂ genetical markers. Also expectable but not so common are South European (Sardinian, Italian and Balkans), Broadly Northwestern (West Germanic) and to a lesser extent British/Irish (Brythonic/Gaelic) and French (Alpine). With a low confidence range there are Scandinavian and East European genetical markers.Â Other sources would point out a small presence ofÂ BerberÂ and Jewish that would be also part of a low confidence region.
Native Portuguese are anÂ IberianÂ ethnic group and they form 95% of the whole population, whose ancestry is very similar toÂ SpaniardsÂ and have strong ties with fellowÂ Atlantic Arc countriesÂ like Ireland, British Isles, France and Belgium due to maritime trade dated as far back as the Bronze Age. These maritime contacts and the prevalence of R1b haplogroup as the main genetical marker of these countries suggest a common ancestry and cultural proximity. Other maritime contacts with the Mediterranean especially with Greeks, Phoenicians, Romans and Moors add some particular phenotypes in Southern Portugal and particularly Southern Spain (TartessosÂ culture) making Portugal and Northwestern Spain a bridge between North Western Europe and the Mediterranean but maintaining theÂ AtlanticÂ character.
Despite the good economic development in the past three decades the Portuguese were the shortest in Europe since 1890. This emerging height gap took place in the 1840s and has increased since. One of the driving factors was the modest real wage development, given the late industrialization and economic growth in Portugal compared to the European core. Another determinant was the delayedÂ human capitalÂ formation.
The total fertility rate (TFR) as of 2015Â was estimated at 1.52 children born/woman, one of the lowest in the world, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1,Â it remains considerably below the high of 5.02 children born per woman in 1911.Â In 2016, 52.8% of births were to unmarried women.Â Like most Western countries, Portugal has to deal with low fertility levels: the country has experienced aÂ sub-replacement fertility rateÂ since the 1980s.Â Portugal subsequently has the 17th oldest population in the world, with the average age of 43.7 years.
Portugal’s parliament in 2018 approved a budget plan for 2019 that includes tax breaks for returning emigrants in a bid to lure back those who left during theÂ financial crisis of 2007â€“2008. The expansionary 2019 budget, backed by aÂ left-wingÂ majority in parliament, also aims to boost the purchasing power of households while cutting the already low deficit even further.Â Returning emigrantsÂ will be allowed to declare only half their taxable income for five years if they return, provided they lived abroad for at least three years. The “Return Programme” is to run for two years. Around 500,000 residents left Portugal between 2010 and 2015 after theÂ Great Recession. Although some 350,000 have since returned, Lisbon wants to tempt the rest to come home â€“ in a similar scheme to the Irish one.Â Portugal has approved a credit line for Portuguese emigrants aiming to invest in the country on their return. Furthermore, Emigrants returning in 2019 and 2020 will see their taxes halved as part of the stimulus to bring native Portuguese back and revitalise the population and promote continued economic growthÂ Â â€“ as Portugal struggles with a low birth rate and anÂ ageing population. According to projections by the national statistics office, Portugal’s population will fall to 7.7 million by 2080 from 10.3 million now and the population will continue to age.
Largest cities or towns in Portugal
INEÂ 2011 Census
Vila Nova de Gaia
|4||Vila Nova de Gaia||Norte||186,503||14||Aveiro||Centro||60,058|
|9||Vila Franca de Xira||120,000|
Regions by HDI
|Very high human development|
|1||Lisbon metropolitan area||0.886|
|â€“||Â PortugalÂ (average)||0.847|
|High human development|
In 2007, Portugal had 10,617,575 inhabitants of whom about 332,137 were legalÂ immigrants.Â In 2015, Portugal had 10,341,330 inhabitants of whom about 383,759 were legal migrants, making up 3.7% of the population.Â In 2017, Portugal had 416,682 legal residents of foreign origin, of which 203,753 identified as male, and 212,929 as female.
Portugal’sÂ colonial historyÂ has long since been a cornerstone of its national identity, as has its geographic position at the south-western corner of Europe, looking out into the Atlantic Ocean. It was one of the last western colonial European powers to give up its overseas territories (among themÂ AngolaÂ andÂ MozambiqueÂ in 1975), turning over the administration ofÂ MacauÂ to the People’s Republic of China at the end of 1999. Consequently, it has both influenced and been influenced by cultures from former colonies or dependencies, resulting in immigration from these former territories for both economic and personal reasons. Portugal, long a country of emigration (the vast majority ofÂ BraziliansÂ have Portuguese ancestry),Â has now become a country of net immigration,Â and not just from the lastÂ IndianÂ (Portuguese until 1961),Â AfricanÂ (Portuguese until 1975), andÂ Far East AsianÂ (Portuguese until 1999) overseas territories. An estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country’s African possessions gained independence in 1975.
Since the 1990s, along with a boom inÂ construction, several new waves ofÂ Ukrainian,Â Brazilian,Â Lusophone AfricansÂ and otherÂ AfricansÂ have settled in the country.Romanians,Â Moldovans,Â Kosovo Albanians,Â RussiansÂ andÂ ChineseÂ have also migrated to the country. Portugal’sÂ RomaniÂ population is estimated to be at about 40,000.Â Numbers ofÂ Venezuelan,Â PakistaniÂ andÂ IndianÂ migrants are also significant.
In addition, a number ofÂ EU citizens, mostly from the United Kingdom, other northern European orÂ NordicÂ countries, have become permanent residents in the country (with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners who live in the Algarve and Madeira).
According to the 2011 Census, 81.0% of the Portuguese population isÂ Roman Catholic Christian.Â The country has small Protestant,Â Latter-day Saint,Â Muslim,Â Hindu,Â Sikh,Â Eastern Orthodox Church,Â Jehovah’s Witnesses,Â Baha’i,Â Buddhist,Â JewishÂ andÂ SpiritistÂ communities. Influences fromÂ African Traditional ReligionÂ and Chinese Traditional Religion are also felt among many people, particularly in fields related with Traditional Chinese Medicine and Traditional African Herbal Medicine. Some 6.8% of the population declared themselves to be non-religious, and 8.3% did not give any answer about their religion.
Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated. In theÂ 13th and 14th centuries, the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in theÂ reconquest, its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including itsÂ first university.
The growth of theÂ Portuguese overseas empireÂ made itsÂ missionariesÂ important agents ofÂ colonization, with important roles in theÂ educationÂ andÂ evangelizationÂ of people from all the inhabited continents. The growth ofÂ liberalÂ and nascentÂ republicanÂ movements during the eras leading to the formation of theÂ First Portuguese RepublicÂ (1910â€“26) changed the role and importance of organized religion.
Portugal is aÂ secular state:Â church and state were formally separatedÂ during the Portuguese First Republic, and later reiterated in the 1976Â Portuguese Constitution. Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating toÂ religious freedomÂ in Portugal are the 1940 Concordata (later amended in 1971) between Portugal and theÂ Holy SeeÂ and the 2001 Religious Freedom Act.
Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. Portuguese is aÂ Romance languageÂ that originated fromÂ Galician-Portuguese; an extinct language that was spoken in what is nowÂ GaliciaÂ andÂ Northern PortugalÂ regions. There are still many similarities between theÂ GalicianÂ andÂ PortugueseÂ cultures. Galicia is a consultative observer of theÂ Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
The Portuguese language is derived from theÂ LatinÂ spoken by theÂ romanizedÂ pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian PeninsulaÂ around 2000 years ago â€“ particularly theÂ Celts,Â Tartessians,Â LusitaniansÂ andÂ Iberians. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the language spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire between 1415 and 1999.Â Portuguese is spoken as a native language in five different continents, with Brazil accounting for the largest number of native Portuguese speakers of any country. In 2013 the Portuguese language is the official language spoken in Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, SÃ£o TomÃ© and PrÃncipe, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, andÂ East Timor. These countries, plusÂ MacauÂ Special Administrative Region (People’s Republic of China) where Portuguese is co-official withÂ Cantonese, make up theÂ Lusosphere, a term derived from the ancientÂ Roman provinceÂ of “Lusitania“, which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of theÂ DouroÂ river.
MirandeseÂ is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of North-Eastern Portugal. An estimate of between 6,000 and 7,000 Mirandese speakers has been documented for Portugal.
The educational system is divided into preschool (for those under age 6), basic education (9 years, in three stages, compulsory), secondary education (3 years, compulsory since 2010), and higher education (subdivided in university andÂ polytechnicÂ education). Universities are usually organized intoÂ faculties. Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions ofÂ Portuguese higher education institutions.
The total adult literacy rate is 99.4 percent. Portuguese primary school enrollments are 100 percent.
According to theÂ Programme for International Student AssessmentÂ (PISA) 2015, the average Portuguese 15-year-old student, when rated in terms of reading literacy, mathematics and science knowledge, is placed significantly above theÂ OECD‘s average, at a similar level as those students from Norway, Denmark and Belgium, with 501 points (493 is the average). The PISA results of the Portuguese students have been continuously improving, overcoming a number of other highly developed western countries like the US, Austria, France and Sweden.
About 46,9% of college-age citizens (20 years old) attend one of Portugal’s higher education institutionsÂ (compared with 50% in the United States and 35% in the OECD countries). In addition to being a destination forÂ international students, Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students. All higher education students, both domestic and international, totaled 380,937 in 2005.
Portuguese universities have existed since 1290. TheÂ oldest Portuguese universityÂ was first established in Lisbon before moving toÂ Coimbra. Historically, within the scope of the Portuguese Empire, the Portuguese founded the oldest engineering school of theÂ AmericasÂ (theÂ Real Academia de Artilharia, FortificaÃ§Ã£o e DesenhoÂ ofÂ Rio de Janeiro) in 1792, as well as the oldest medical college in Asia (theÂ Escola MÃ©dico-CirÃºrgicaÂ ofÂ Goa) in 1842. Presently, the largest university in Portugal is theÂ University of Lisbon.
TheÂ Bologna processÂ has been adopted by Portuguese universities and poly-technical institutes in 2006. Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system ofÂ numerus claususÂ is enforced through a national database on student admissions. However, every higher education institution offers also a number of additional vacant places through other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen, mature applicants (over 23 years old),Â international students, foreign students from theÂ Lusosphere, degree owners from other institutions, students from other institutions (academic transfer), former students (readmission), and course change, which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each institution or course department.
Most student costs are supported with public money. However, with the increasing tuition fees a student has to pay to attend a Portuguese state-run higher education institution and the attraction of new types of students (many as part-time students or in evening classes) like employees, businessmen, parents, and pensioners, many departments make a substantial profit from every additional student enrolled in courses, with benefits for the college or university’s gross tuition revenue and without loss of educational quality (teacher per student, computer per student, classroom size per student, etc.).
Portugal has entered intoÂ cooperation agreements with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other US institutionsÂ to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research.
The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems: the National Health Service (ServiÃ§o Nacional de SaÃºde, SNS), special social health insurance schemes for certain professions (health subsystems) and voluntary private health insurance. The SNS provides universal coverage. In addition, about 25% of the population is covered by the health subsystems, 10% by private insurance schemes and another 7% by mutual funds.
The Ministry of Health is responsible for developing health policy as well as managing the SNS. Five regional health administrations are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives, developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care delivery. Decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial and management responsibility to the regional level. In practice, however, the autonomy of regional health administrations over budget setting and spending has been limited to primary care.
The SNS is predominantly funded through general taxation. Employer (including the state) and employee contributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems. In addition, direct payments by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding.
Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die fromÂ noncommunicable diseases. Mortality fromÂ cardiovascular diseasesÂ (CVD) is higher than in theÂ eurozone, but its two main components, ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, display inverse trends compared with the Eur-A, withÂ cerebrovascular diseaseÂ being the single biggest killer in Portugal (17%). Portuguese people die 12% less often from cancer than in the Eur-A, but mortality is not declining as rapidly as in the Eur-A. Cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger than 44 years. Although lung cancer (slowly increasing among women) and breast cancer (decreasing rapidly) are scarcer, cervical cancer and prostate cancer are more frequent. Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the 1980s.
Portugal’sÂ infant mortality rateÂ is around 2 deaths per 1000 newborns, with 2.4 deaths per 1000 live births.
People are usually well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of their behaviour on their health, and their use of health care services. Yet their perceptions of their health, can differ from what administrative and examination-based data show about levels of illness within populations. Thus, survey results based on self-reporting at household level, complement other data on health status and the use of services.
Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal (Kasmel et al., 2004). This is the lowest of the Eur-A countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity.Hospital de Santa MariaÂ is the largest university hospital in Portugal
Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role during theÂ Age of Discovery. In the 1990s and 2000s (decade), Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities, in addition to theÂ Calouste Gulbenkian FoundationÂ established in 1956 in Lisbon.
These include theÂ BelÃ©m Cultural CentreÂ in Lisbon,Â Serralves FoundationÂ and theÂ Casa da MÃºsica, both inÂ Porto, as well as new public cultural facilities like municipal libraries and concert halls that were built or renovated in many municipalities across the country. Portugal is home toÂ 17Â UNESCOÂ World Heritage Sites, ranking itÂ 9th in Europe and 18th in the world.
Traditional architecture is distinctive and include theÂ Manueline, also known as Portuguese lateÂ GothicÂ a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century. A 20th-century interpretation of traditional architecture,Â Soft Portuguese style, appears extensively in major cities, especially Lisbon. Modern Portugal has given the world renowned architects likeÂ Eduardo Souto de Moura,Â Ãlvaro Siza VieiraÂ (bothÂ Pritzker PrizeÂ winners) andÂ GonÃ§alo Byrne. In PortugalÂ TomÃ¡s TaveiraÂ is also noteworthy, particularly for stadium design.
Portuguese cinemaÂ has a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century.Â AntÃ³nio Lopes Ribeiro,Â AntÃ³nio Reis,Â Pedro Costa,Â Manoel de Oliveira,Â JoÃ£o CÃ©sar Monteiro,Â Edgar PÃªra,Â AntÃ³nio-Pedro Vasconcelos,Â Fernando Lopes,Â JoÃ£o BotelhoÂ andÂ Leonel Vieira, are among those that gained notability. Noted Portuguese film actors includeÂ Joaquim de Almeida,Â Nuno Lopes,Â Daniela Ruah,Â Maria de Medeiros,Â Diogo Infante,Â Soraia Chaves,Â Ribeirinho,Â LÃºcia Moniz, andÂ Diogo Morgado.
Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text as well as song. Until 1350, theÂ Portuguese-GalicianÂ troubadoursÂ spread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula.Â Gil VicenteÂ (c. 1465â€“c. 1536) was one of the founders of Portuguese dramatic traditions.
Adventurer and poetÂ LuÃs de CamÃµesÂ (c. 1524â€“1580) wrote the epic poemÂ Os LusÃadasÂ (The Lusiads), withÂ Virgil‘sÂ AeneidÂ as his main influence.Â Modern Portuguese poetry is rooted in neoclassic and contemporary styles, as exemplified byÂ Fernando PessoaÂ (1888â€“1935). Modern Portuguese literature is represented by authors such asÂ Almeida Garrett,Â Camilo Castelo Branco,Â EÃ§a de QueirÃ³s,Â Fernando Pessoa,Â Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen,Â AntÃ³nio Lobo AntunesÂ andÂ Miguel Torga. Particularly popular and distinguished isÂ JosÃ© Saramago, recipient of the 1998Â Nobel Prize in Literature.
Portuguese cuisine is very diverse. The Portuguese consume a lot of dryÂ codÂ (bacalhauÂ in Portuguese), for which there are hundreds ofÂ recipes.Â There are more than enoughÂ bacalhauÂ dishes; over one for each day of the year. Two other popular fish recipes are grilledÂ sardinesÂ andÂ caldeirada, a tomato-basedÂ stewÂ that can be made from several types of fish with a mix of onion, garlic, peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, parsley orÂ coriander. Typical Portuguese meat recipes made out of beef, pork, lamb, goat or chicken includeÂ cozido Ã portuguesa,Â feijoada,Â frango de churrasco,Â leitÃ£oÂ (roastÂ suckling pig),Â chanfanaÂ andÂ carne de porco Ã alentejana. A very popular northern dish isÂ dobrada, a tripe with white beans and carrots stew, often served with steamed white rice.Â Piri-piriÂ chicken is a spicy charcoal chicken dish served with rice and vegetables, a favourite throughout Portugal, but most common in theÂ AlgarveÂ region.
Typical fast food dishes include theÂ FrancesinhaÂ (Frenchie) from Porto, “Tripas Ã moda do Porto” which is also a traditional plate from Porto, andÂ bifanasÂ (grilled pork) orÂ pregoÂ (grilled beef)Â sandwiches, which are well known around the country. The Portuguese art ofÂ pastryÂ has its origins in the manyÂ medievalÂ Catholic monasteries spread widely across the country. These monasteries, using very few ingredients (mostly almonds,Â vanilla,Â cinnamon, flour, eggs and some liquor), managed to create a spectacular wide range of different pastries, of whichÂ pastÃ©is de BelÃ©mÂ (orÂ pastÃ©is de nata) originally from Lisbon, andÂ ovos molesÂ from Aveiro are examples. Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes. The Portuguese have a culture of good food, and throughout the country there are myriads of good restaurants and typical smallÂ tasquinhas.
Portuguese wines have enjoyed international recognition since the times of the Romans, who associated Portugal with their godÂ Bacchus. Today, the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes. Some of the best Portuguese wines areÂ Vinho Verde,Â Vinho Alvarinho,Â Vinho do Douro,Â Vinho do Alentejo,Â Vinho do DÃ£o,Â Vinho da BairradaÂ and the sweetÂ Port Wine,Â Madeira Wine, and theÂ MoscatelÂ fromÂ SetÃºbalÂ andÂ Favaios. Port and Madeira are particularly appreciated in a wide range of places around the world.
Portuguese musicÂ encompasses a wide variety of genres. The traditional one is the Portuguese folk music which has deep roots in local customs having as instruments bagpipes, drums, flutes, tambourines, accordions and ukuleles (cavaquinho). Within Portuguese folk music is the renowned genre ofÂ Fado, a melancholic urban music originated inÂ LisbonÂ in the 19th century, probably inside bohemian environments, usually associated with theÂ Portuguese guitarÂ andÂ saudade, or longing.Â Coimbra fado, a unique type of “troubadourÂ serenading” fado, is also noteworthy. Internationally notable performers includeÂ AmÃ¡lia Rodrigues,Â Carlos Paredes,Â JosÃ© Afonso,Â Mariza,Â Carlos do Carmo,Â AntÃ³nio Chainho,Â MÃsia,Â Dulce PontesÂ andÂ Madredeus.
In the classical music domain, Portugal is represented by names as the pianistsÂ Artur Pizarro,Â Maria JoÃ£o Pires,Â Sequeira Costa, the violinists Carlos Damas,Â Gerardo RibeiroÂ and in the past by the great cellistÂ Guilhermina Suggia. Notable composers includeÂ JosÃ© Vianna da Motta,Â Carlos Seixas,Â JoÃ£o Domingos Bomtempo,Â JoÃ£o de Sousa Carvalho,Â LuÃs de Freitas BrancoÂ and his studentÂ Joly Braga Santos,Â Fernando Lopes-GraÃ§a,Â Emmanuel NunesÂ andÂ SÃ©rgio Azevedo. Similarly, contemporary composers such as Nuno Malo and Miguel d’Oliveira have achieved some international success writing.
In addition toÂ Folk, Fado and Classical music, other genres are present at Portugal like pop and other types of modern music, particularly from North America and the United Kingdom, as well as a wide range of Portuguese, Caribbean, Lusophone African and Brazilian artists and bands. Artists with international recognition includeÂ Dulce Pontes,Â Moonspell,Â Buraka Som Sistema,Â Blasted Mechanism,Â David CarreiraÂ andÂ The Gift, with the three latter being nominees for aÂ MTV Europe Music Award.
Portugal has several summer music festivals, such asÂ Festival SudoesteÂ inÂ Zambujeira do Mar,Â Festival de Paredes de CouraÂ inÂ Paredes de Coura,Â Festival Vilar de MourosÂ nearÂ Caminha,Â Boom FestivalÂ inÂ Idanha-a-Nova Municipality,Â NOS Alive,Â Sumol Summer FestÂ inÂ Ericeira,Â Rock in Rio LisboaÂ andÂ Super Bock Super RockÂ inÂ Greater Lisbon. Out of the summer season, Portugal has a large number of festivals, designed more to an urban audience, like Flowfest or Hip Hop Porto. Furthermore, one of the largest internationalÂ Goa tranceÂ festivals takes place in central Portugal every two years, the Boom Festival, that is also the only festival in Portugal to win international awards: European Festival Award 2010 â€“ Green’n’Clean Festival of the Year and the Greener Festival Award Outstanding 2008 and 2010. There is also the student festivals ofÂ Queima das FitasÂ are major events in a number of cities across Portugal. In 2005, Portugal held theÂ MTV Europe Music Awards, inÂ PavilhÃ£o AtlÃ¢ntico,Â Lisbon. Furthermore, Portugal won theÂ Eurovision Song Contest 2017Â inÂ KievÂ with the song “Amar pelos dois” presented byÂ Salvador Sobral, and subsequently hosted theÂ 2018 contestÂ at theÂ Altice ArenaÂ inÂ Lisbon.
Portugal has aÂ rich history in painting. The first well-known painters date back to the 15th centuryÂ â€“ likeÂ Nuno GonÃ§alvesÂ andÂ Vasco FernandesÂ â€“ were part of the late Gothic painting period. During the renaissance Portuguese painting was highly influenced by north European painting. In the Baroque periodÂ Josefa de Ã“bidosÂ andÂ Vieira LusitanoÂ were the most prolific painters.Â JosÃ© Malhoa, known for his workÂ Fado, andÂ Columbano Bordalo PinheiroÂ (who painted the portraits ofÂ TeÃ³filo BragaÂ andÂ Antero de Quental) were both references inÂ naturalist painting.
The 20th century saw the arrival ofÂ Modernism, and along with it came the most prominent Portuguese painters:Â Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, who was heavily influenced by French painters, particularly the Delaunays (RobertÂ andÂ Sonia). Among his best-known works isÂ CanÃ§Ã£o Popular a Russa e o FÃgaro. Another great modernist painters/writers wereÂ Carlos BotelhoÂ andÂ Almada Negreiros, friend to the poetÂ Fernando Pessoa, who painted Pessoa’s portrait. He was deeply influenced by bothÂ CubistÂ andÂ FuturistÂ trends.
FootballÂ is the most popular sport in Portugal. There are several football competitions ranging from local amateur to world-class professional level. The legendaryÂ EusÃ©bioÂ is still a major symbol ofÂ Portuguese footballÂ history.Â FIFA World Player of the YearÂ winnersÂ LuÃs FigoÂ andÂ Cristiano Ronaldo, who won theÂ FIFA Ballon d’Or, are two world-class Portuguese football players. Portuguese football managers are also noteworthy, withÂ JosÃ© MourinhoÂ being among the most renowned.
TheÂ Portugal national football teamÂ â€“Â SeleÃ§Ã£o NacionalÂ â€“ have won oneÂ UEFA European ChampionshipÂ title: theÂ UEFA Euro 2016, with a 1â€“0 victory in theÂ finalÂ overÂ France, the tournament hosts. In addition, Portugal finished first in theÂ 2018â€“19 UEFA Nations LeagueÂ with a 1â€“0 win over theÂ NetherlandsÂ in theÂ finalÂ (held in Portugal), second in theÂ Euro 2004Â (also held in Portugal), third in theÂ 1966 FIFA World CupÂ andÂ 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup, and fourth in theÂ 2006 FIFA World Cup. At youth level, Portugal have won twoÂ FIFA World Youth ChampionshipsÂ (inÂ 1989Â andÂ 1991) and severalÂ UEFAÂ European Youth Championships.
S.L. Benfica,Â Sporting CPÂ andÂ FC PortoÂ are the largestÂ sports clubsÂ by popularity and by number of trophies won, often known as “os trÃªs grandes” (“the big three”). They have won eight titles in the EuropeanÂ UEFAÂ club competitions, were present in 21 finals and have been regular contenders in the last stages almost every season. Other than football, many Portuguese sports clubs, including the “big three”, compete in several other sports events with a varying level of success and popularity, these may includeÂ roller hockey,Â basketball,Â futsal,Â handball, andÂ volleyball. TheÂ Portuguese Football FederationÂ (FPF) Â â€“Â FederaÃ§Ã£o Portuguesa de FutebolÂ â€“ annually hosts theÂ Algarve Cup, a prestigiousÂ women’s footballÂ tournament that has been celebrated in the Algarvian part of Portugal.
InÂ athletics, the Portuguese have won a number of gold, silver and bronze medals in the European, World and Olympic Games competitions.Â Cycling, withÂ Volta a PortugalÂ being the most important race, is also a popular sports event and include professional cycling teams such asÂ Sporting CP,Â Boavista,Â Clube de Ciclismo de TaviraÂ andÂ UniÃ£o Ciclista da Maia. At international level, Portuguese cyclists have already achieved good results.Â Joaquim AgostinhoÂ finished on the podium in 1978 and 1979Â Tour de France, and 1974Â Vuelta a EspaÃ±a.Â Rui CostaÂ has won theÂ world titleÂ in the men’s road race.
The country has also achieved notable performances in sports likeÂ fencing,Â judo,Â kitesurf,Â rowing, sailing,Â surfing, shooting,Â taekwondo,Â triathlonÂ andÂ windsurf, owning several European and world titles. TheÂ paralympicÂ athletes have also conquered many medals in sports likeÂ swimming,Â boccia,Â athletics,Â mixed martial artsÂ andÂ wrestling.
In motorsport, Portugal is internationally noted for theÂ Rally of Portugal, and theÂ Estoril,Â Algarve CircuitsÂ and the revivedÂ Porto Street CircuitÂ which holds a stage of the WTCC every two years, as well as for a number of internationally noted pilots in variedÂ motorsports.
In equestrian sports, Portugal won the only Horseball-Pato World Championship in 2006 achieved the third position in the FirstÂ HorseballÂ World Cup and has achieved several victories in the EuropeanÂ Working EquitationÂ Championship.
In water sports, Portugal has three major sports:Â swimming,Â water poloÂ andÂ surfing. Most recently, Portugal had success inÂ canoeingÂ with several world and European champions, such as olympic medalists. Annually, the country also hosts one of the stages of theÂ World Surf LeagueÂ men’s and women’sÂ Championship Tour, theÂ MEO Rip Curl Pro PortugalÂ at theÂ SupertubosÂ inÂ Peniche.
Northern Portugal has its own originalÂ martial art,Â Jogo do Pau, in which the fighters use staffs to confront one or several opponents. Other popular sport-related recreational outdoor activities with thousands of enthusiasts nationwide includeÂ airsoft, fishing,Â golf, hiking, hunting andÂ orienteering.
- Mirandese, spoken in some villages of the municipality ofÂ Miranda do Douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n.Â° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro),Â awarding it an official right-of-use.Â Portuguese Sign LanguageÂ is also recognized. Â
- By country of citizenship Â
- Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976Â with several subsequent minor revisions, between 1982 and 2005. Â
- Before 2002, theÂ escudo. Â
- In recognized minorityÂ languages of Portugal: Â